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Women in Antiquity HIA 311, Fall 2014


Course Syllabus

Description - goals - office hours - books - papers - policies - guidelines


Schedule

Meeting dates - reading assignments - submission deadlines


Paper Assignments

Topics and options for writing assignments


Paper Requirements

Format and setup requirements for all papers



Writing a Paper

Approaches to researching, structuring, and arguing a position in a history paper


Maps Gallery

Maps of the ancient Mediterranean - Egypt - Fertile Crescent - Greece - Persia - Roman Empire


Timelines

Timelines for various eras and societies


Slides

The slides shown at each class meeting



PDF Documents

Syllabus, schedule, and other handouts for download as PDFs


Paper Template

Preformatted MS Word file to use for papers


Getting the Books

Buying or renting print or digital versions of the books for the course


My Grades

Log in for your current grades and any missing assignments

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Direct link to this page

List of PDF Documents

HIA-311 Exam Review Sheet NEW
HIA-311 Syllabus
HIA-311 Schedule
HIA-311 Writing Assignments
HIA-311 Requirements for All Papers
Writing a Position Paper
Geography Handout

Excerpts from Classical Sources

Aeschylos, Eumenides
Book of Esther
Euripides, Bacchae
Euripides, Medea
Hesiod, Theogony
Hesiod, Works and Days
Homer on Agamemnon
Homer on Nausicaa
Homer on Penelope
Livy on the Regal Period
Pliny the Younger
Plutarch, Advice
Sophocles, Antigone
Theocritus
The Twelve Tables

Articles

Abusch, “Ishtar's Proposal and Gilgamesh’s Refusal”
Archer, “Notions of Community and the Exclusion of the Female in Jewish History and Historiography”
Archer, “The Role of Jewish Women in the Religion, Ritual, and Cult of Graeco-Roman Palestine”
Arthur, “The Divided World of Iliad VI”
Arthur, “Early Greece: The Origins of the Western Attitude Toward Women”
Bailey, “Initiation and the Primal Woman in Gilgamesh and Genesis 2-3”
Beard, “Re-reading (Vestal) Virginity”
Boatwright, “Women and Gender in the Forum Romanum”
Braund, “A Woman’s Voice: Laronia’s Role in Juvenal Satire 2”
Brock, “Reading Between the Lines: Sarah and the Sacrifice of Isaac (Genesis, Chapter 22)”
Burton, “Women's Commensality in the Ancient Greek World”
Carp, “Two Matrons of the Late Republic”
Clark, “Roman Women”
Corbier, “Male Power and Legitimacy Through Women … Under the Julio-Claudians”
Curran, “Rape and Rape Victims in The Metamorphoses”
Depla, “Women in Ancient Egyptian Wisdom Literature”
Dewald, “Women and Culture in Herodotus’s Histories”
Dover, “Classical Greek Attitudes to Sexual Behavior”
Dowden, “Approaching Women Through Myth: Vital Tool or Self-Delusion?”
Fantham, “Aemilia Pudentilla: Or the Wealthy Widow’s Choice”
Fischler, “Social Stereotypes and Historical Analysis: The Case of the Imperial Women at Rome”
Fisher, “Theodora and Antonina in the Historia Arcana: History and/or Fiction?”
Foley, “The Conception of Women in Athenian Drama”
Foxhall, “Women’s Ritual and Men’s Work in Ancient Athens”
George, Introduction to Epic of Gilgamesh (pp. xxxi–li, remainder optional)
Gilgamesh, Tablets 1, 2, and 6
Gourevitch, “Women Who Suffer from a Man’s Disease”
Hallett, “The Role of Women in Roman Elegy: Counter-Cultural Feminism”, with responses
Harris, “Inanna-Ishtar as Paradox and a Coincidence of Opposites”
Heath, “Women's Work: Female Transmission of Mythical Narrative”
Katz, “Ideology and the ‘Status of Women’ in Ancient Greece”
King, “Self-Help, Self-Knowledge: … the Patient in Hippocratic Gynaecology”
Lambropoulou, “Some Pythagorean Female Virtues”
Lefkowitz, “Influential Women”
Lesko, “Women's Monumental Mark on Ancient Egypt”
Marry, “Sappho and the Heroic Ideal”
Nixon, “The Cults of Demeter and Kore”
Ortner, “Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?”
Perkell, “On Creusa, Dido, and the Quality of Victory in Virgil’s Aeneid”
Pomeroy, “Infanticide in Hellenistic Greece”
Pomeroy, “Spartan Women among the Romans: Adapting Models, Forging Identities”
Pomeroy, “Women’s Identity and the Family in the Classical Polis”
Robins, “The God’s Wife of Amun in the 18th Dynasty in Egypt”
Roehrig (ed.), Hatshepsut: From Queen to Pharaoh
Roller, “Horizontal Women: Posture and Sex in the Roman Convivium”
Savunen, “Women and Elections in Pompeii”
Segal, “The Menace of Dionysus: Sex Roles and Reversals in Euripides’ The Bacchae”
Slater, “The Greek Family in History and Myth”
Stigers, “Sappho’s Private World”
Thonemann, “The Women of Akmoneia”
Venit, “Women in Their Cups”
Walker, “Women and Housing in Classical Greece: The Archaeological Evidence”
Warren, “The Women of Etruria”
Wilson, “Female Sanctity in the Greek Calendar: The Synaxarion of Constantinople”
Zeitlin, “The Dynamics of Misogyny: Myth and Mythmaking in the Oresteia”
Zeitlin, “Signifying Difference: The Myth of Pandora”

Course Syllabus

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Women in Antiquity

"Women have received from the gods the same ability to reason that men have. … Since that is so, why is it appropriate for men to seek out and examine how they might live well— that is, to practice philosophy—but not women? Is it fitting for men to be good, but not women?" — MUSONIUS RUFUS

Course Info

HIA 311, section 01W
WST 311, section YL01
Fall 2014
Room CA-209
Fridays 9:00 – 11:40 a.m.

Instructor
Mark Wilson
MARK.WILSON@lehman.cuny.edu
http://markbwilson.com
(718) 960-8288

Office Hours
Room CA-292
Tuesdays and Thursdays
11:00 a.m. – 12:00 p.m.
Drop in Thursdays 12–6 p.m.

Rationale

The written evidence from the ancient world is dominated by the actions and perspectives of men, who both ruled public life and created most of the cultural expression that has endured. Increasingly over the past several decades historians have sought to overcome this evidentiary bias by striving the represent women’s perspectives both in the narratives of individuals cultures and times and through the specific exploration of the voices, deeds, and representations of women of antiquity, as a pathway to understanding both the meaning of womanhood in any given society and the mores of the cultures they helped bring about and shape for posterity.

Aims

The course examines the image, role, and status of women in ancient societies, with some emphasis on Greece and Rome. Its focus is twofold: myth and symbol, analyzed in the literary sources available; and what we can discover of the reality, through discussion of demographic evidence, the law, status and legal capacity, marriage and divorce, work, education, and religion. By this means we’ll attempt to draw conclusions about the cultural, social, economic, political, and religious roles of women in ancient societies.

Specific Learning Objectives

In this course we'll be pursuing a number of goals, including:

  • Exploration of gender roles in in the ancient world, in different cultures and across time
  • Discussion of the social, cultural, religious, economic, and political norms that affected, and were shaped by, women in ancient societies
  • Analysis of the representations and images of women in ancient cultures and how they related to the lives of women in those societies
  • Discussion of how the study of women’s roles has affected modern understanding of ancient cultures
  • Development of the skills associated with the study of history, including the interpretation of primary sources and other evidence.

Course Readings

The following book is required:

There is also an optional book:

Pomeroy, Sarah B.
Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves:
Women in Classical Antiquity.

New York: Schocken Books, 1995.
ISBN: 978-0-805-21030-9.

Hawley, Richard, & Barbara Levick.
Women in Antiquity: New Assessments.
London: Routledge, 1995.
ISBN: 978-0-415-11369-4.

  • The 1995 edition has a new preface by the author and has a few updates, so you should try to find that rather than an older version.
  • This book is also available as an e-book for Kindle, Nook, Adobe Digital Editions, and other e-readers. See the links on the “Getting the Books” page.
  • The essays in this collection are included in the pool of articles from which you picking additional weekly readings.

All are available from Lehman College Bookstore, either in person or online. (The website URL for the bookstore is http://www.lehmancollege.bkstr.com.)

These books are also available from Amazon and other online retailers. (There are links on my website—see the “Getting the Books” page on the course web page.) If you order online, make sure you do so enough in advance that you’ll receive the books in time for the assignments.

Attendance

Class attendance is required. Missing classes will damage your grade. The textbook is designed to give you the basics; it's in class that we try to make sense of things and sift out what's important. Missing classes means you miss out on a key part of our trying to put things together. Plus, if you miss classes or habitually arrive late, you'll miss quizzes, which will put a big crimp in your grade for the course.

Religious observances that affect your class attendance should be discussed in advance.

Make-up exams are given only in cases of documented medical emergencies.

Assignments

Your grade for the course will be determined from the following:

Position Paper   30%
Presentation & Write-Up (2)   20%
Representations & Images Essay   15%
Final Exam   35%

I do not give extra credit opportunities except to the entire class. I do not grade on a curve.

Position Paper

  • You’ll write an essay discussing a topic of your choice relating to the role and impact of women in the ancient era, examining the source material, causes, and effects of the event or transformation and drawing your own conclusions about its meaning. We’ll talk about what’s expected. The requirements are given in the Essays handout.
  • You’ll submit a proposal for the paper partway through the semester, so I can give you feedback on your plans.
  • You can submit a draft of the paper up to two weeks before it’s due; I’ll give general feedback (but not a grade). Because I accept drafts, I do not allow students to submit revised versions of their paper after the final due date.

Presentation and Write-Up on a scholarly Source (2)

  • You’ll make a short presentation on two of the scholarly articles assigned as class readings, one in the first half of the course and one in the second half. Your presentation will give the class your perspective on (a) what this reading argues, (b) the author’s point of view on the topic in comparison to other possible points of view, and (c) how the article relates to issues being discussed in the course.
  • Your presentation will be given the day that reading is assigned on the schedule. A 2–3 page write-up of your take on the reading, incorporating class discussion, is due the next class. The requirements are given in the Essays handout.

Interpretive Essay on representations and images

  • You’ll write a short interpretive essay that involves a response to your choice of various nonwritten artistic depictions of women in the ancient era, including sculpture, painting, performance, or film, comparing the history with how it has been represented.
  • We’ll talk in class about what’s expected. The requirements are given in the Essays handout.

Final Exam

  • A final exam will be given in which you will interpret the major themes of the course.

Submitting Assignments

You may email me your written assignments, but it doesn't "count" unless you get an email back from me saying I received it. Unless I reply back to you, I didn't receive it. If there's any question about whether I'm receiving your emails, please talk to me about it in class. I will accept only the following file formats: DOCX, DOC, RTF, ODT, and PDF.

Late assignments will be marked down. Written assignments will be marked down one letter grade per class meeting after the assignment due date, up to a maximum of 30 points. That means you're still better off turning in your paper late, and having it be marked down, than not turning it in at all.

Guidelines

Don't waste this opportunity! Make the most out of this class.

Please use me as a resource. Come to my office hours, talk to me after class, or send me emails with any questions you have-whether they relate to the requirements of the course or ideas we're reading about or discussing in class.

Be on time and prepared. By prepared, I mean you should come into class having done the readings for that day and thought about them. Come in ready to talk about your reactions to the readings and the questions they raised in your mind.

Check your email. Make sure I have a good email address for you and check it, as I occasionally send information and updates by email. If you have not gotten an email from me within the first week after school begins, check your spam folders. If you can't find an email from me, email me to let me know.

Cell phones and electronics need to be silenced and stowed. A phone ringing during class is hugely disruptive. Texting during class is just as rude and insulting as talking on the phone.

Talk to me if you're struggling. Come to me in office hours or after class, and the sooner the better. Don't wait until it's too late to turn things around.

Academic Policies

Academic Integrity

Lehman College is committed to the highest standards of academic honesty. Acts of academic dishonesty include-but are not limited to-plagiarism (in drafts, outlines, and examinations, as well as final papers), cheating, bribery, academic fraud, sabotage of research materials, the sale of academic papers, and the falsification of records. An individual who engages in these or related activities or who knowingly aids another who engages in them is acting in an academically dishonest manner and will be subject to disciplinary action. Plagiarism includes the incorporation of any material that is not original with you without attribution, whether from a book, article, web site, or fellow student, in any paper or assignment. Assignments that include any plagiarism will receive a zero and the offending student will be subject to additional action by the College. Students engaging in repeated instances of plagiarism will fail the course outright and will be remanded to the College for disciplinary action. For more: http://www.lehman.edu/undergraduate-bulletin/academicintegrity.htm

Accommodations for Students with Disabilities

Lehman College is committed to providing access to all programs and curricula to all students. Students with disabilities who may need classroom accommodations are encouraged to register with the Office of Student Disability Services. For more information, please contact the Office of Student Disability Services, Shuster Hall, Room 238; phone number: (718) 960-8441.

Schedule of Readings and Assignments

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For each class meeting, you need to have read everything marked with a plus box () plus at least one of the articles marked with a red square bullet ().

All items marked “(handout)” are available as PDFs via the links provided.



1 Fri Aug 29
Introduction and Evidence
Pomeroy, Introduction to Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity (hereinafter Goddesses)

2 Fri Sep 5
Civilizing Prostitute, Immoral Goddess:
Women in The Epic of Gilgamesh
George, Introduction to Epic of Gilgamesh (pp. xxxi–li, remainder optional)
Epic of Gilgamesh, Tablets 1, 2, and 6 (handout)
 
Articles (pick one):
Abusch, “Ishtar's Proposal and Gilgamesh’s Refusal” (handout)
Bailey, “Initiation and the Primal Woman in Gilgamesh and Genesis 2-3” (handout)
Harris, “Inanna-Ishtar as Paradox and a Coincidence of Opposites” (handout)

3 Fri Sep 12
Queens in a Land of Kings:
The Female Pharaohs of Egypt
Selections from Roehrig (ed.), Hatshepsut: From Queen to Pharaoh (handout)
 
Articles (pick one):
Depla, “Women in Ancient Egyptian Wisdom Literature” (handout)
Lesko, “Women's Monumental Mark on Ancient Egypt” (handout)
Robins, “The God’s Wife of Amun in the 18th Dynasty in Egypt” (handout)

4 Fri Sep 19
Earth Mothers and Vengeance Wreakers:
Ancient Goddesses and Gods
Pomeroy, “Goddesses and Gods” (Goddesses ch. 1, pp. 1–15)
Hesiod, Theogony (handout)
 
Articles (pick one):
Nixon, “The Cults of Demeter and Kore” (Women in Antiquity ch. 5, pp. 75–96)
Slater, “The Greek Family in History and Myth” (handout)
Zeitlin, “Signifying Difference: The Myth of Pandora” (Women in Antiquity ch. 4, pp. 58–74)

5 Tue Sep 23
The Face that Launched a Thousand Ships:
The Bronze Age and its Homeric Echo
Pomeroy, “Women in the Bronze Age and Homeric Epic” (Goddesses ch. 2, pp. 16–31)
Homer, selections from Iliad and Odyssey (three handouts):

Articles (pick one):
Arthur, “Early Greece: The Origins of the Western Attitude Toward Women” (handout)
Arthur, “The Divided World of Iliad VI” (handout)
Dowden, “Approaching Women Through Myth: Vital Tool or Self-Delusion?” (Women in Antiquity ch. 3, pp. 44–57)
Ortner, “Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?” (handout)


Fri Sep 26 (no class meeting)

Fri Oct 3 (no class meeting)

6 Fri Oct 10
Transformed by Exile:
Women and the Kingdom of Israel
The Book of Esther” (handout)
 
Articles (pick one):
Archer, “Notions of Community and the Exclusion of the Female in Jewish History and Historiography” (handout)
Archer, “The Role of Jewish Women in the Religion, Ritual, and Cult of Graeco-Roman Palestine”
Brock, “Reading Between the Lines: Sarah and the Sacrifice of Isaac (Genesis, Chapter 22)” (handout)

7 Fri Oct 17
Position Paper Proposal Due
Colonists, Soldiers’ Mothers, and Poets:
Greece Emerging from the Dark Age
Pomeroy, “The Dark Age and the Archaic Period” (Goddesses ch. 3, pp. 32–56)
Hesiod, Works and Days (handout)
 
Articles (pick one):
Heath, “Women's Work: Female Transmission of Mythical Narrative” (handout)
Marry, “Sappho and the Heroic Ideal” (handout)
Stigers, “Sappho’s Private World” (handout)

8 Fri Oct 24
Obligation to Family:
Women and the Athenian Polis
Pomeroy, “Women and the City of Athens” (Goddesses ch. 4, pp. 57–78)
Aeschylos, from Eumenides (handout)
 
Articles (pick one):
Dewald, “Women and Culture in Herodotus’s Histories” (handout)
Katz, “Ideology and the ‘Status of Women’ in Ancient Greece” (Women in Antiquity ch. 2, pp. 21–43)
Pomeroy, “Women’s Identity and the Family in the Classical Polis” (Women in Antiquity ch. 7, pp. 111–121)
Walker, “Women and Housing in Classical Greece: The Archaeological Evidence” (handout)

9 Fri Oct 31
Housewives and Hetaerae:
Living Unpublicly in Classical Athens
Pomeroy, “Private Life in Classical Athens” (Goddesses ch. 5, pp. 79–92)
Euripides, from The Bacchae
Theocritus, “The Women at the Adonis Festival”, from Idylls (handout)
 
Articles (pick one):
Burton, “Women's Commensality in the Ancient Greek World” (handout)
Dover, “Classical Greek Attitudes to Sexual Behavior” (handout)
Foxhall, “Women’s Ritual and Men’s Work in Ancient Athens” (Women in Antiquity ch. 6, pp. 97–110)
Segal, “The Menace of Dionysus: Sex Roles and Reversals in Euripides’ The Bacchae” (handout)
Venit, “Women in Their Cups”

10 Fri Nov 7
Tragic Heroines:
Images of Women in Athenian Literature
Pomeroy, “Images of Women in the Literature of Classical Athens” (Goddesses ch. 6, pp. 93–119)
Sophocles, from Antigone (handout)
Euripides, from Medea (handout)
 
Articles (pick one):
Foley, “The Conception of Women in Athenian Drama” (handout)
Lambropoulou, “Some Pythagorean Female Virtues” (Women in Antiquity ch. 8, pp. 122–134)
Zeitlin, “The Dynamics of Misogyny: Myth and Mythmaking in the Oresteia” (handout)

11 Fri Nov 14
Representations & Images Paper Due
Paragons, Pawns, and Augustae:
The Roman Aristocratic Matron
Pomeroy, “The Roman Matron of the Late Republic and Early Empire” (Goddesses ch. 8, pp. 149–189)
Livy, “The Capture of the Sabine Women” and “The Rape of Lucretia” (handout)
 
Articles (pick one):
Boatwright, “Women and Gender in the Forum Romanum” (handout)
Carp, “Two Matrons of the Late Republic” (handout)
Corbier, “Male Power and Legitimacy Through Women … Under the Julio-Claudians” (Women in Antiquity ch. 12, pp. 178–193)
Fantham, “Aemilia Pudentilla: Or the Wealthy Widow’s Choice” (Women in Antiquity ch. 14, pp. 220–232)
Fischler, “Social Stereotypes and Historical Analysis: The Case of the Imperial Women at Rome” (handout)

12 Fri Nov 21
Farmer, Foreigner, Freedwoman, Slave:
Beyond the Roman Aristocracy
Pomeroy, “Women of the Roman Lower Classes” (Goddesses ch. 9, pp. 190–204)
The Twelve Tables”, fragments (handout)
 
Articles (pick one):
Curran, “Rape and Rape Victims in The Metamorphoses” (handout)
Hallett, “The Role of Women in Roman Elegy: Counter-Cultural Feminism”, with responses (handout)
Roller, “Horizontal Women: Posture and Sex in the Roman Convivium” (handout)
Savunen, “Women and Elections in Pompeii” (Women in Antiquity ch. 13, pp. 194–206)
Warren, “The Women of Etruria” (handout)

Fri Nov 28 (no class meeting)
Position Paper Optional Draft Due (by email)

13 Fri Dec 5
Vesta, Fortuna, and the Good Goddess:
Women and the Roman Religion
Pomeroy, “The Role of Women in the Religion of the Romans” (Goddesses ch. 10, pp. 205–226)
Pliny the Younger, selected letters (handout)
 
Articles (pick one):
Beard, “Re-reading (Vestal) Virginity” (Women in Antiquity ch. 11, pp. 166–177)
Clark, “Roman Women” (handout)
Fisher, “Theodora and Antonina in the Historia Arcana: History and/or Fiction?” (handout)
Perkell, “On Creusa, Dido, and the Quality of Victory in Virgil’s Aeneid” (handout)

14 Fri Dec 12
Position Paper Due
Women of the Cosmopolis:
The Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman Eras
Pomeroy, “Hellenistic Women” (Goddesses ch. 7, pp. 120–148)
Pomeroy, “The Elusive Women of Classical Antiquity” (Goddesses epilogue, pp. 227–230)
Plutarch, “Advice to the Bride and Groom”
 
Articles (pick one):
King, “Self-Help, Self-Knowledge: … the Patient in Hippocratic Gynaecology” (Women in Antiquity ch. 9, pp. 135–148)
Lefkowitz, “Influential Women” (handout)
Pomeroy, “Infanticide in Hellenistic Greece” (handout)
Pomeroy, “Spartan Women among the Romans: Adapting Models, Forging Identities” (handout)
Thonemann, “The Women of Akmoneia” (handout)
Wilson, “Female Sanctity in the Greek Calendar: The Synaxarion of Constantinople” (Women in Antiquity ch. 16, pp. 233–247)

Fri Dec 19
Final Examination
(9:00 – 11:00 a.m.)

Writing Assignments

PDF version of this document
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Remember that, as always, I am looking for your opinion and how well you support it with evidence; these essays are less about “right answers” than they are about well-supported ideas.

Presentation Write-Up (2)

Due on the class meeting after your presentation

Write a 2–3 page essay that does the following:

  • Briefly summarizes what the document says and, more importantly, analyzes what the author is trying to say about the subject at hand. In other words, you need to identify and discuss what you believe is the author’s interpretation, bias, and point of view and how it affected the author’s treatment of the topic. Give examples from the document that illustrate your assessment of the author’s spin.
  • Provides perspective by relating the material in the document, and the author’s bias on it, to the bigger picture—the themes, issues, and material being discussed in class.
  • Incorporates any responses that came up in class after your presentation, and your own reactions to them.

Position Paper

Final draft due Friday, Dec. 12

Write a 6–8 page position paper in which you express an opinion about a topic related to the roles and impact of women in the ancient era, and use evidence to back up that opinion. In other words, you’re taking a side on some question or controversy, and you use reasoning and research to support your side of the argument.

  • For your topic, choose one of the 13 meeting topics for the course and decide on a controversy or debate that pertains to that topic.
  • You can choose a question or problem that the people at the time might have debated — e.g., “How are the expectations for goddesses different from those of mortal women?”; or a question that might arise among modern historians — e.g., “Is Athens really more repressive of women than Sparta?” In each case you need to outline both sides of the question in your paper and then provide evidence why you think one side was right.
  • Choose a topic you’re interested in and have fun with it. Make it wacky, make it provocative — anything is fine as long as you make an argument regarding your chosen topic and support it with facts.
  • You must use at least three sources. Ideally you should have a mix of primary and secondary sources. TERTIARY SOURCES ARE NOT ALLOWED.
  • You must submit a proposal by October 17 with a provisional topic and thesis. (See next section for more on what I’m looking for in the proposal.)
  • You may submit an optional draft by November 28. It should include most of your paper (at least two thirds of the final content, with sections to be written described in square brackets). I will give feedback, but not a grade, to help you refine your final paper. We’re not meeting that day, so you’ll need to submit your draft by email.
  • Because I accept optional drafts, I do not accept revisions of content after the final paper has been submitted and graded—though some formatting and citations errors can be corrected and resubmitted. (See “Requirements for All Papers” handout for more.)

Position Paper Proposal

The proposal is just a brief one-page preview of your position paper that includes the following:

  • The topic you think you’ll want to write about and the problem you’re interested in addressing. You should be able to delineate the problem by describing the opposing views people might take. To make sure you have two clear opposing opinions, you might want to express them in the form “Some say… . Others say… .”
  • Your preliminary thesis statement—in other words, what you think you might be arguing in your paper.
  • Your thesis statement, both here and in the final paper, should be a statement of opinion that someone could disagree with. It can take the form of following up the description of the opposing opinions with your own: “I believe… .”
  • Remember that your thesis is provisional. You can change anything about your approach and interpretation after the proposal; in fact, uncovering information as you do your research makes refining or changing your initial assessments very likely.
  • These items are essentially the model for your introduction, as you can see from this sample intro:
   
Problem
Hannibal Barca, the great Carthaginian general, brought 37 war elephants with him over the Alps into Italy, and at the climactic Battle of Zama they had a front line that included 80 elephants. Did Hannibal’s elephants really make a difference? Some say that Hannibal’s elephants were crucial in establishing the morale of his troops against the legendary Roman legions and in intimidating other armies along the way into alliances; but others say that Hannibal’s elephants did the Carthaginian side more harm than good in their fight with Rome. I believe that Hannibal’s use of elephants was a mistake, not because war elephants were a dumb idea in general, but because Roman adaptability meant that the Romans would inevitably find a way around them.
   
 
Opposing sides
   
 
Thesis statement
  • In addition, in the proposal you should also outline any thoughts you have so far on what kinds of evidence you think will help you make your case in the final paper.
  • I’ll respond to the proposal with feedback and suggestions to help you map out your research and writing.

Essay on Representations and Images

Due Friday, Nov. 14 

Write a 3 page essay based on ONE of the two following topic questions.

Whichever option you choose, the purpose of this essay is NOT to describe the works in question, but to interpret their meaning and discuss analytically what they tell us about how different kinds of artists and creators represent the ancient peoples and their world.

Option 1 – Artifacts comparison

  • Visit any museum exhibition or collection of art, architecture, or other artifacts of the ancient world. Choose two or three comparable artworks from different eras, from different places, or both.
  • The question: If art is an expression of cultural values, what do the differences between these works tell you about the role or perception of women in the respective cultures they come from? What do their similarities tell you about what women in these ancient societies have in common?
  • Make sure to look for items with the same, or comparable, subjects, that come from different times or from different places. For example: a Greek statue of a young woman and a Roman statue of a young woman, or a decorated vase from the Greek Archaic period and one from the Classical or Hellenistic period. (For possible venues, see next page.)
  • You must describe in detail how what you see leads you to concrete conclusions about these ancient peoples. Be bold, be provocative, and be specific.
  • Important: On a separate “Works Discussed” page after your essay, list the title of each work, the artist, the approximate date it was created, and the name of the museum gallery where the work can be found.
  • Also on the “Works Discussed” page, paste in photographs of the items. If it’s permitted at the museum, take a picture of the items while you’re there. If it’s not, find pictures of them on the museum’s web site or via a Google Images search.

Option 2 – Films and sources

  • Watch any feature-length film that seriously depicts women in the ancient world and compare it with a primary source—written evidence about that society or those events.
  • The question: Both the movie and the written evidence are artistic interpretations of reality. Use at least two specific events or characters to compare the filmmakers’ intent and message with that of the writers of the source material. What do they want you to believe?
  • (For some suggested possibilities, see the next page.)
  • Important: On a separate “Works Discussed” page after your essay, list the title of film, year, director, stars and studio. Then list the book or books you drew your written evidence from, using standard citation style.
  • You may also employ secondary sources to help you interpret the film, the primary source, or both.

Some possibilities for Representations & Images Essay

Option 1 possibilities

Possible venues for the artifacts comparison option include:

  • Metropolitan Museum: Egypt Collection
    http://www.metmuseum.org/about-the-museum/museum-departments/curatorial-departments/egyptian-art
  • Metropolitan Museum: Greek and Roman Art
    http://www.metmuseum.org/about-the-museum/museum-departments/curatorial-departments/greek-and-roman-art
  • Brooklyn Museum of Art: Ancient Egyptian Art
    http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/egyptian/copy/history
  • Fordham Museum of Greek, Etruscan and Roman Art
    http://www.library.fordham.edu/resources/fordhammuseum.html
  • You are, of course, not limited to these venues, and you are not limited to New York.

Option 2 possibilities

Some possibilities for the film and sources option include (this list is not exhaustive; I can give you specifics on where to look in the primary sources on request):

Film Possible Primary Sources to Compare
Alexander (2004) Plutarch, Alexander; or Arrian, Anabasis
Boudica (2003) Tacitus, Annals 14.29–39, Agricola; Cassius Dio Roman History 62
Caligula (1980) [warning: explicit sex] Suetonius, Caligula; Cassius Dio, Roman History 59
Cleopatra (1963) Plutarch, Caesar and Antony
Electra (1963) Euripides, Elektra; Sophocles, Elektra
Helen of Troy (1956) Homer, Iliad 3, Odyssey 4, 23; Euripides, Helen; Ovid, Heroides 16; Isocrates, Helen
I, Claudius (1976) [1-2 episodes] Tacitus, Annals books 11–12; Suetonius, Claudius
Intolerance (1916) [Part 1] Herodotus, The Histories book 1.70–144; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 10–11
Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat (1999)   Old Testament, Genesis 37–50
Masada (1981) Josephus, The Jewish War book 1
One Night with the King (2006) Old Testament, Esther
Quo Vadis? (1951) Tacitus, Annals 13–16; Suetonius, Nero; Cassius Dio, Roman History 61–63
Rome (2005–2007) [use 1-2 episodes] Various (see me)
Solomon and Sheba (1959) Old Testament, Kings or Chronicles; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews book 8
The Odyssey (1997) Homer, Odyssey
The Prince of Egypt (1998) Old Testament, Exodus
The Ten Commandments (1956) Old Testament, Exodus
Troy (2004) Homer, Iliad

Many of these primary sources are available through the list of ancient sources and translations on my website (http://markbwilson.com/) via the “Ancient Texts” link at the top of the page.

Requirements for All Papers

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Basic requirements

All papers submitted to me must:

  • Be typed, double-spaced, in 12 pt. Times or Arial, with one-inch margins. Please spell-check and, if you’re not sure about your writing, have a friend read it. I will not mark down for grammar, but clarity is vital.
  • Have a cover page with the title, your name, my name, and the date; and have page numbers on each page after the cover. On the course web page there’s a link to a DOCX essay template that you may find helpful.
  • Include both (a) citations for all quotations, paraphrases, information, and ideas that come from any source other than your own head, AND (b) a bibliography that lists all the sources you used. See below for more.
  • Run the required length specified in the handout for that paper—full pages mind you—plus the cover page and bibliography.

Sources and citations

Citations are crucial. All direct quotations, indirect quotations, and ideas from other sources MUST BE footnoted according to a standard citation style, and referring to a bibliography at the end of the paper. This is extremely important and failure to do this will seriously affect your grade. (See the booklet for more on citations and bibliographies.)

Note that providing citations only for direct quotes is NOT sufficient. This is a common mistake and will result in your paper being marked down. You must cite all information, paraphrases and ideas from your sources—anything that is not your own discussion and analysis.

Quality of evidence. The arguments you are making in your paper MUST BE supported by evidence from primary and/or secondary sources—ideally a balanced mix of the two. (The number of required sources depends on the assignment.) You may NOT use tertiary sources for any assignment you hand in to me. Tertiary sources include textbooks, dictionaries, encyclopedias, my lectures, and almost everything on the internet.

See me for guidance. I am available anytime, by email or in office hours, to discuss your sources, citations, or any other aspect of your paper. There are also resources about structuring, researching, writing, and footnoting position papers on the Student Resources page of my website.

Submitting your paper

Handing it in  

The paper may be (a) handed in in class, or (b) submitted by email in a DOCX, DOC, PDF, ODT, or RTF format to mark.wilson@lehman.cuny.edu. Note: Your email submission only “counts” if you receive a reply back from me saying I got it. Please do not leave your paper in the bin outside my office door. As stated in the syllabus, any late submissions are marked down 10 points per class meeting.

Optional draft  

For any paper you can submit an optional draft no later than two class meetings before the due date. I won’t grade it, but I’ll give you some feedback about how well you’re addressing the topic and thesis of your paper. Your draft should be most of the paper (generally three quarters at least); for the parts you haven’t written, please insert a note in brackets that outlines what you intend to write.

General grading criteria

Your paper should

  • Start with an introduction stating the problem and your opinion on it (the thesis statement);
  • Then give evidence in the main body that supports your thesis statement, ideally in three sections treating three different aspects or issues related to the topic;
  • Then conclude by summarizing how the evidence supports your opinion.

(See the elephant booklet for more on thesis statements and structuring your paper to support your argument.)

I grade a paper by evaluating how it succeeds in a few key categories. I consider all of the following expected of a college-level position paper.

  • Introduction  The introduction is a paragraph that outlines the issue or question that the paper will address; arouses reader’s interest, fits purpose, and indicates the point of view; lays out the argument to be made in the paper; and leads up to a thesis statement of position that could be disagreed with by an informed reader, rather than a bare factual statement.
  • Organization  The paper is organized in a logical sequence, presenting a succession of ideas in turn that are each in support of the thesis, each section effectively building to develop the thesis in order to convince the reader of the argument being presented.
  • Analysis  The writer uses evidence to demonstrate the thesis; examples and evidence are discussed and analyzed to show the ways that the evidence illustrates the thesis; adequate research and sources are used; analysis predominates in the body of the paper over mere description; and the paper offers, and discusses problems with, an opposing viewpoint (counterarguments to your thesis).
  • Sources  The paper shows good use of primary and secondary sources, with no tertiary sources; the sources used are relevant and appropriate; and the discussion retains independent voice with judicious use of quotes.
  • Conclusion  The paper ends with an appropriate concluding statement; the conclusion effectively closes the paper, tying together all arguments and reinforcing thesis.

Deductions

If you don’t meet the basic requirements of the paper, you’ll be marked down. So make sure you look over the requirements before submitting your paper!

Deductions you can reverse: Some kinds of deductions can be remedied by submitting a revised version of the paper within a week of the graded paper being returned. The paper will not be regraded for content. The reversible deductions are: No cover sheet; no page numbers; no bibliography; some or all citations missing.

Deductions you can’t reverse: I’ll mark you down if the paper is submitted late (10 points per class meeting up to 30 points) or if it does not meet the length requirements (significantly too short or too long). Plagiarized papers will, of course, receive a zero and possible academic disciplinary action. A successive violation will result in failure of the course and academic disciplinary action. Make sure you understand about academic dishonesty; see the syllabus for more.

Writing a Position Paper

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Writing a strong, effective position paper means taking a position and using evidence to convince your reader. You will find that the skills involved in planning, structuring, and executing a strong, effective position paper will be useful to you not only in other academic assignments, but in any situation in which you want someone else to believe something.

STEP ONE: PROBLEM AND THESIS

The most important component of your paper is the position you want to convince your reader of. In a position paper, this takes the form of the thesis: a sentence at the end of your introductory paragraph that states an opinion that someone could disagree with, which you will then seek to prove in the body of your paper.

The Problem

One way of looking at a thesis is as the answer to a problem—something about a time and place that seems to need explaining. This can be phrased as a question. But it's important to take a close look at your question and see whether it will work for your paper. You need to test your question in two ways: (a) are there two or more sides historians might argue, and (b) is the scope too big or too small for the paper I am writing?

For example, if you're interested in Hannibal's war with Rome, you might first want to look at the big question: "Why did Hannibal lose?" This is a good one in terms of the first test, because historians have given lots of conflicting answers over the last 2200 years. But it's also huge, which might mean you'll be in trouble on the second test. In this case you'd want to narrow it down to a more specific question about Hannibal's war that still has different possible answers, like "Why didn't Hannibal attack Rome?" or "Did Hannibal's elephants really make a difference?"

The first test—are there different answers?—is crucial. If your question were something like "Why did Hannibal attack Rome?" you could write a long paper answering it, but it wouldn't be a position paper because there's really no disagreement: Rome was Carthage's economic nemesis; their expanding interests created inevitable conflict, leading to a previous war—one result of which was Hannibal being raised to despise the Romans. Unless you've unearthed some radical, game-changing new evidence, it would be very hard to imagine two sides to this question.

That's why I recommend that your introduction include a statement of the problem, followed by statements that might be made by historians arguing different, opposing answers. You should be able to express these competing ideas in a "some say… others say…" formula. For example, here's the start of a sample introduction:

Hannibal Barca, the great Carthaginian general, brought 37 war elephants with him over the Alps into Italy, and at the climactic Battle of Zama he had a front line that included 80 elephants. Did Hannibal's elephants really make a difference? Some say that Hannibal's elephants were crucial in establishing the morale of his troops against the legendary Roman legions and in intimidating other armies along the way into alliances; but others say that Hannibal's elephants did the Carthaginian side more harm than good in their fight with Rome.

Here the introduction is shown with three of its four important elements: setting, problem, and possible positions.

The Thesis

Your thesis, then, must provide your answer to the problem or question you've posed. If your problem meets the two tests—it has two or more possible positions and it has a manageable scope—then your thesis should easily meet the main requirement, which is that it must be a statement of opinion that someone could disagree with.

That's why something like "Hannibal Barca was a Carthaginian general" would make a bad thesis. There's no conflict, there's no possible disagreement. No one would want to read a paper attempting to prove this.

In fact the rule here is to go as far as possible in the other direction. The more radical, the better—as long as you have evidence to back it up. (More on evidence in a moment.) For example, a thesis like "Hannibal was really an extraterrestrial from the planet Mondegreen" is a wonderful thesis. Everyone would want to read the paper trying to prove this thesis—which is where the whole supporting evidence thing comes in.

The best thesis is one that states a position, and gives an extremely concise summary of the "reasons why" that you're going to give. You should be able to express your thesis using the formula "I believe… because…". For example, here's a thesis statement that might complete the partial sample introduction quoted above:

I believe that Hannibal's use of elephants was a mistake, not because war elephants were a dumb idea in general, but because Roman adaptability meant that they would inevitably find a way around them.

This thesis not only sets out what you're going to prove in your paper, but gives you the magic number of topics to cover in the body of your paper—three. Using your thesis as a guideline, you know you'll need sections on (a) why war elephants could be effective in ancient battle scenarios; (b) adaptability as a key and intrinsic trait for the Romans, especially in war; and (c) how that adaptability ended up trumping the usefulness of elephants when the Carthaginians faces the Romans. Now you just need to assemble, and discuss, the evidence available in each of these three areas.

Notice that you're supporting your thesis with three assertions that in themselves are statements of opinion—they are sort of mini-theses. This logical structure is why a position paper works to convince the reader. Your thesis rests on opinions A, B, and C. You can prove A easily using evidence. You can prove B, too, with the evidence related to that assertion. And then C flows naturally from A and B, brought home using the evidence related to C. Demonstrating that A, B, and C are true convinces your reader that your thesis is true, too.

A good thesis, in other words, provides you with the skeleton for the body of your paper.

SUPPORTING YOUR THESIS: EVIDENCE AND ANALYSIS

I said before that three "reasons why" your thesis is convincing is the magic number. You can think of them as pillars, because what they're doing is supporting your argument. Plenty of papers have been written with more than three pillars, and you might be able to support an argument (for some readers) with two or even one pillar. But long experience suggests that three pillars is the most sturdy and aesthetically effective way of supporting a thesis in a position paper like this one.

The body of your paper, then, will have three sections. Each starts with the assertion you hinted at in the thesis statement. Then you provide evidence supporting that assertion, and finally you interpret that evidence, showing the reader how it effectively illustrates the assertion, and so in turn supports your overall thesis.

What evidence do you need to assemble and describe? In most historical situations, you want to provide two kinds of evidence: (a) examples from the time and place that show what you asserted was what actually happened, and (b) expert testimony from scholars who have deeply studied the relevant events or texts. In other words, you ideally want to provide both primary sources and secondary sources.

For example, in my sample thesis the first topic—my first pillar—involves discussing why war elephants are not normally a bad idea, or, to put it another way, to show that the reason Hannibal's elephants were a mistake was not that elephants were a mistake in general, because what my paper is really about is Roman adaptability as the thing that threw a wrench in the works. So I need to show that war elephants were effective in other contexts—ideally, for the Carthaginians in other wars, if possible. I do that by providing examples of effective elephants from the ancient literature. For example, I could summarize primary sources that show Alexander of Macedon using elephants effectively at the Battle of the Hydaspes River, the Seleucids using elephants well at the Battle of Ipsus and against the Maccabees, and the Ptolemaic Egyptians at the battle of Raphia. (See the Rule of Threes surfacing again? Remember, each of your three sections is making its own argument that requires convincing your reader, so three pieces of evidence are ideal.)

Primary sources provide accounts or narratives of events; you next need to talk about how and why the elephants are effective. Here's where secondary works come in. In this case, you want scholars who specialize in either ancient military tactics or specifically in Macedonian-style warfare, talking about theory behind elephant warfare and why the ancients kept turning to it during this period.

The last paragraphs of this section are for your interpretation, where you make connections between your sources. Your interpretation shows how your sources demonstrate the assertion you're making in this section, and makes it clear that this helps support your overall thesis. The rule is, you can't just throw the evidence at the reader: first describe it, then tell the reader what it means.

That means the structure of the paper so far is going to be something like this:

I. Introduction
 A. Context
 B. Question
 C. Possible positions ("some say… others say…")
 D. Thesis statement  ("I believe… because…")

II. Elephants were not a dumb idea in general
 A. Examples from primary sources
  1. Alexander
  2. Seleucids
  3. Ptolemaic Egyptians
 B. Expert opinion on the effectiveness of elephant warfare
 C. My interpretation of what the evidence means and why it shows that
  elephants were not a dumb idea in general

Sections III (Roman adaptability) and IV (How Roman adaptability trumped the effectiveness of elephants) will follow the same structure as section II.

Finding Evidence

Finding evidence for any given historical problem is easy. Finding the right evidence that will help you make a convincing argument is hard. Therefore, my rule of thumb is, start with the evidence that's easy to find, and let it point you toward the evidence that it relies on.

For example, it's often easier to find the secondary sources than the primary. But remember the definition of a secondary source: it's the work of a scholar using primary sources to provide his or her own interpretation of events. So a scholarly secondary source is going to be based on primary sources—and the secondary source's text, footnotes, and bibliography will tell you which ones and where to look in them.

Finding books. So, start by looking for books. Tertiary sources like textbooks and encyclopedias can help you here: just as secondary sources are based on primary sources and can point you toward them, tertiary sources are based on secondary sources and can point you toward them. A textbook on ancient history or ancient Rome will usually have a "Suggested readings" section for each chapter and/or a Bibliography; these will give you the names of books that you might want to try to find. History-related articles in online encyclopedias, while notoriously unreliable, normally have a sources section that lists relevant books on the subject. (Remember: tertiary sources cannot be used as sources of evidence in your paper. This includes textbooks, encyclopedias, and almost everything on the web.)

If there's a book that's obviously useful—say you've come across references to the book War Elephants by John Kistler—the next step is to try to get that book through the library system by looking up the book title in the online catalog. In this case, it's not at the Lehman College library; but it is at John Jay, which is within the CUNY system. So all you have to do is click on the "Request" button, and John Jay will send it to Lehman for you in a few days.

If the book weren't in the CUNY system at all, you'd still have the option to have it sent to you through an online Interlibrary Loan request: if it's at another regional library you'll get it delivered via ILL in a week or two. Another option would be to check the book's availability at the NYPL, using the online catalog at http://catalog.nypl.org. If it's at the main library on Fifth Avenue (and many, many books that aren't available elsewhere are available there), and it's essential to your paper, it might sense to plan an afternoon in midtown to make use of what you can find there. (You can't borrow books out from the reading room there, but you can photocopy important pages and take notes.)

Another tactic is browsing the topic. Start by searching the online catalog for relevant keywords: ancient war, Roman wars, elephants, Hannibal, Zama, etc. As you do these searches take note of the call numbers for books that seem like they might be useful. The call numbers will start to cluster in two or three different areas. For example, Roman military history is around DG89 (history–ancient Italy–armies), but also U35 (military science–Rome). Books on Hannibal will be in DG249 (history–ancient Italy–Second Punic War). War Elephants, the book I noted above, is at UH87 (military science–other). And so on.

So here's the big trick: Once you find the call number clusters, go and look at the shelf for each of them and see what's next to the books that came up in your search. Because every time I do research, the book that's most useful to me is on the shelf next to the books that came up in the catalog search. Take down books with likely titles—and, before you even carry them to your table, check two things: the Table of Contents and the Index. They'll tell you if that book covers subjects that will be useful to you and your thesis. If you've got a book on Hannibal in your hand, but the index doesn't list elephants, you can confidently put it back—it won't help you with this paper.

Once you have a book in hand, you can harvest its sources by checking the footnotes and bibliography for (a) mentions of other secondary sources that seem to be the seminal books in the field and (b) important primary sources and the relevant passages in them. So a book on the Second Punic War will often mention both the most important scholarly books on that war, some of which you'll want to try to find. It will also refer not only to the primary source authors who wrote about that war, but it will specify the crucial passages in those works.

In this way, using what you have, you can assemble what you need.

Finding journal articles. In addition to scholarly books, you'll want to look for another kind of secondary source: journal articles. Books are generally comprehensive approaches to a general subject, with titles like Hannibal or The Second Punic War or War Elephants. Journal articles are much more narrow and circumscribed. Like a position paper, they're usually written to answer a very specific question.

Most of the classics and history journals are archived in JSTOR, an online database, available through the CUNY library websites, where you can (a) search by keywords and authors, and (b) retrieve full-text PDFs of the articles. xFor example, a JSTOR search reveals that there is a journal article called "Magister Elephantorvm: A Reappraisal of Hannibal's Use of Elephants" by Michael B. Charles and Peter Rhodan that argues that Hannibal's use of elephants at Zama illustrates his tendency to take risks in battle; and another by Charles, "African Forest Elephants and Turrets in the Ancient World," that takes on the very particular and contentious question of whether ancient warfare with the small African forest elephants involved the use of turrets, or howdahs.

From searches like these you can find a wealth of information. You may find articles that are spot on for your subject, and will be directly useful both (a) as expert secondary evidence you can quote or summarize in your paper, and (b) as directories of the most important classical and secondary sources on the subject. (Charles and Rhodan's copious footnotes cite every important book, article, and classical source on Hannibal and elephants.) Even without articles that perfectly intersect with your thesis, just the search and a glimpse at the resulting articles, even the ones that aren't exactly what you need, give you useful information—like who's writing about these subjects (apparently Prof. Charles is one of the experts on ancient war elephants) and what the burning issues are in this field.

You can also use JSTOR to find a particular article referenced elsewhere. For example, you might have come across a footnote citing the Charles and Rhodan article in a book you've found; you could then look for the article in JSTOR.

Finally, a JSTOR search may return book reviews of books that might be helpful; you can then go and find that book. For example, my JSTOR search on the keywords "war elephants hannibal" turned up a review of a book called Hannibal's Elephants by Alfred Powers; that book might have been worth investigating. (Do not use just the review as a source. The reviewer will have picked only the elements of the book that stood out to him to write about, making the review both a subjective and an incomplete treatment of the material covered in the book.)

THE CONCLUSION: TELL 'EM WHAT YOU JUST TOLD 'EM

The final section of your paper summarizes the arguments made in the paper and connects them, showing how they support the thesis you made at the beginning.

Counterarguments. To make your position as convincing as possible, one thing you'll want to consider is: What would someone say if they wanted to disagree with you? The reason this is important is that your reader may remain unconvinced because you haven't dealt with an objection he or she already knows about and is mentally setting against your arguments. Your paper is not effective because you haven't countered the opposing argument.

Suppose you were writing a paper that said that Louis XIV was a great king who made France stronger. Anyone familiar with French history, reading your paper, might be thinking, "Yeah, well, what about revoking the Edict of Nantes? Exiling the artisan and middle-class Protestants was a huge and long-lasting blow to the French economy, wasn't it?" Your argument and your evidence might be well structured and impressively interpreted, but your reader may still set down your paper unsatisfied, still thinking to herself, "But what about the Edict of Nantes?"

So before you begin your conclusion paragraph, consider a paragraph where you address what an opponent in a debate, for example, might say to rebut you after you've had your say. You should be able to phrase this paragraph using a formula like "Some might say… . In fact, however, …". In this example, you want to show why revoking the Edict doesn't tarnish Louis XIV, either because the impact wasn't that major or because the other things Louis did outweighed it in benefiting France in the ways you've previously described.

CITATIONS: FOOTNOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES

Citations are absolutely essential in any academic paper, but particularly and especially in history. All information that is not from your own head must be cited, whether it's a direct quote, a paraphrase, or even just an idea.

Citations are how we can tell the difference between what you're claiming is your research and analysis, and the work of others. If you don't cite others' work, you're claiming it for your own, and that's plagiarism. Plagiarism is not tolerated at any academic institution; the lightest you'll get off is a zero for the paper, but in many cases harsher penalties are invoked, including an F for the course and academic disciplinary proceedings that may result in a range of transcript-damaging punishments.

It is therefore crucial that you distinguish evidence you've gathered from primary and secondary sources from your own discussion, interpretation, and analysis. You do that with citations.

Consider the article by Charles and Rhodan I alluded to above. There are a number of ways that that article might crop up in your paper. You might quote it directly:

It's clear that Roman adaptability rendered the power of elephants moot. "Scipio had the answer to the elephant question, and the Punic elephants, when they were not doing damage to Hannibal's own troops, were unable to inflict any real damage on the enemy infantry against which they had been arrayed."

Or you could paraphrase it:

It's clear that Roman adaptability rendered the power of elephants moot. Scipio was ready for them, and Hannibal's elephants, even setting aside the injury they did to the Carthaginians, ended up not causing any real damage to the Romans.

Or you might just use the idea:

It's clear that Roman adaptability rendered the power of elephants moot. When Hannibal's elephants attacked at Zama, the Romans were ready for them.

All three of these assertions require a citation, because all of them derive not from your own head, but from Charles and Rhodan. Making these assertions in any form without acknowledging that you got them from Charles and Rhodan is plagiarism and deserves a failing grade.

The citation system in your paper has two components: the bibliography and the footnotes.

The Bibliography

The Bibliography goes at the very end of your paper. It is a list of all of the books and articles you used for the paper. Every book and article you used as source material must appear in the bibliography, once.

Each entry in the bibliography gives the reader all the information they need to find that book or article if they need to. For a book, you have to give (a) the author, (b) the year, (c) the title of the book, and (d) the city and name of the publisher. For an article, you give (a) the author, (b) the year, (c) the title of the article, (d) the journal name, (e) the volume number, and (f) the pages within that volume that the article covers.

A bibliography listing all the books and articles referred to in this guidebook so far would look like this:

Charles, Michael B. 2008. "African Forest Elephants and Turrets in the Ancient World." Phoenix 62: 338–362.

Charles, Michael B. and Peter Rhodan. 2007. "Magister Elephantorvm: A Reappraisal of Hannibal's Use of Elephants." The Classical World 100: 363–389.

Kistler, John M. 2006. War Elephants. Westport, Conn: Praeger.

Powers, Alfred. 1944. Hannibal's Elephants. New York: Longmans & Co.

The bibliography is alphabetized by the authors' last names, and is not numbered.

Footnotes

I described the bibliography first because what footnotes do is point to an entry in the bibliography. For example, in the sample uses of Charles and Rhodan above, each of them needs a footnote after what comes from the article:

It's clear that Roman adaptability rendered the power of elephants moot. "Scipio had the answer to the elephant question, and the Punic elephants, when they were not doing damage to Hannibal's own troops, were unable to inflict any real damage on the enemy infantry against which they had been arrayed."1
_________________________
1Charles and Rhodan 2007, 388.

It's clear that Roman adaptability rendered the power of elephants moot. Scipio was ready for them, and Hannibal's elephants, even setting aside the injury they did to the Carthaginians, ended up not causing any real damage to the Romans.1
_________________________
1Charles and Rhodan 2007, 388.

It's clear that Roman adaptability rendered the power of elephants moot. When Hannibal's elephants attacked at Zama, the Romans were ready for them.1
_________________________
1Charles and Rhodan 2007, 388.

Note that each footnote is actually pointing to an item in your bibliography. In each case, a footnote gives two pieces of information: (a) which book or article and (b) what page in that book or article—that is, which page would a reader go to in order to find the information you've just referred to?

You can think of the relationship between the footnotes and the bibliography like so:

Citations

The first footnote in this illustration is shorthand for what you're really telling the reader: "You can find this information on page 34 of the book in my bibliography that's written by Smith and published in 2007."

Usually author plus year is enough to identify a particular work. If an author has written more than one book or article that you're using that was published in the same year, then the years are given in the bibliography as 1999a, 1999b, etc., and the book is referred to in the footnotes by "Jones 1999b."

Citation Formats

In these examples I've used the citation style that I normally use, which is based on author–date Chicago style and is derived from the Chicago Manual of Style. The 16th edition of the CMS is current, and information and samples can be found at http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html.

Author–date Chicago style allows for in-text citations instead of footnotes. For example:

It's clear that Roman adaptability rendered the power of elephants moot. Scipio was ready for them, and Hannibal's elephants, even setting aside the injury they did to the Carthaginians, ended up not causing any real damage to the Romans (Charles and Rhodan 2007, 388).

The idea is the same: after material that comes from a source, refer to that bibliography item and give the page.

Other academic documentation systems, such as Modern Language Association or MLA style, also have in-text citations. (For more on MLA cites you can consult, e.g., http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/02/.)

I don't care what citation style you use, or whether you use footnotes or in-text cites. What matters is that the cites are there and that you've properly documented the evidence you've collected from primary and secondary sources.

Timelines

Direct link to this page


Eras of History

Major eras of human history


Ages of Technology

Major ages of human technology


Iron Age Civilizations

Social development across the iron age in different regions

 


Egypt Timeline

Periods of Egyptian history


Hebrew Timelines

Concurrent events involving Hebrews and Neo-Assyrians

   


Periods of
Greek History

Major periods in Greek history


Greece:
Peloponnesian Wars

Phases in the development of the war between the Greeks


Greece:
Fourth Century

Wars for hegemony and the rise of Macedon

 


Periods of
Roman History

Major periods in Roman history


Rome:
Wars in Italy

Rome's progress in dominating Italy


Rome:
Mediterranean Wars

Rome's advancing power in the East


Rome:
Augustus

Chief events in Augustus's career