Midterm Review



The exam will consist of different kinds of questions:

u Identifications (5 or so) youll be provided with a term and youll need to give (a) a description of what it refers to and (b) its significance or importance.

o  All the identification terms will come from this sheet.

u Multiple choice (6 or so)

u Map — you should be able to locate important countries we’ve discussed on a blank world map

u Short answer (1 or 2) like a quiz question: a paragraph or two on a specific topic weve discussed

u Essay (1) a longer discussion giving your interpretation and analysis of a major theme weve covered



Approach to Preparing

u Make a list of the five or six most important milestone events in the periods we’ve discussed.

o  CAUSES Make sure you can identify the most important factors that helped cause these events including long-term factors (the environment) and short-term factors (the spark)

o  LEGACIES Make sure you can identify the legacies of the milestone event. How did it change the culture, society, etc.? What impact did it have on future events?

u For each of the questions below, see whether you have a strong idea how to answer, an okay idea how to answer, or a weak sense of how to answer. Review from the books and notes at least the “weak” ones.

u Note the terms and review ones youre unfamiliar with.

the mongols

u TIGNOR: pages 401–408, READER: “Rise of Chinggis Khan” (p. 1) or “Letters” (p. 18)

Focus Questions

u How did Mongol conquests promote greater cross-cultural contacts and regional development in Afro-Eurasia?

u How did the Mongol dynasties establish themselves by different methods in China and Baghdad? How did the Mongol raids affect commercial networks across Eurasia?

Study Topics

u Mongol cultural identity: 1. origins, 2. military skills, 3. kinship networks, 4. gender and social roles

u Mongol conquests, particularly 1. China, 2. Baghdad (Islam)


u Kublai Khan, Mamluk, Mongols

After the Black Death: The Islamic World, Western Christendom; Ming China

u TIGNOR: pages 411–428,  READER: Chihab Al-‘Umari (p. 48) or Ibn Battuta (p. 56)

u TIGNOR: pages 428–444,  READER: Boccaccio (p. 41) or Froissart (p. 46)

Focus Questions

u Why was the plague so devastating?

u What were the key factors in rebuilding political societies?

u What were the major differences among the three Islamic dynasties?

u Why did Europe remain disunited (and have difficulty recovering from the Black Death)?

u How did the Ming centralize their authority?

Study Topics

u How the Black Death was spread

u The various impacts of the Black Death—social, political, religious, economic, institutional—in all regions and how these differed

u How monarchs strengthened their rule in the 14th century

u How the Mongol invasion contributed to the rise of the Ottomans and Safavids

u What the Mongol conquest did and did not succeed in doing—regions, effective government, religion

u The sources of Ottoman power

u The role and position of the sultan; of the Ming emperor

u The nature of the Renaissance and its effect

u The impact of the printing press—political, social, religious

u The Ming attitude toward international trade


u Black Death, sunni Islam, shiism, Red Turbans, Forbidden City, flagellants, Jacquerie

Reformation and the Wars of Religion

u TIGNOR: pages 470–480,  READER: Luther (p. 100) or von Guericke (p. 105)

Focus Questions

u What caused the political rivalries and religious rifts that divided Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries?

Study Topics

u The origins and effects of the Reformation

u The differing motivations and goals of Protestant leaders: Luther, Calvin, Henry VIII of England

u The spread of Lutheranism, especially among Germanic principalities

u The spread of Calvinism among lesser nobility as a political movement: France, England

u The political effects of the English Reformation

u Why great powers like Austria and Spain remained loyal to the Catholic Church

u The nature of the Church’s response

u How theological debate became a century of bloody war: French Civil War, Netherlands Revolt, Anglo-Spanish War, Thirty Years War


u Protestant Reformation, Church of England, Counter-Reformation, Jesuits, Huguenots, Spanish Armada, Holy Roman Empire

Europe’s Expanding Trade Empires

u TIGNOR: pages 452–470,  READER: Sepúlveda (p. 77) or “Broken Spears” (p. 68) or da Gama (p. 91)

Focus Questions

u What was old and what was new in sixteenth-century world trade?

u How did the Portuguese attitude toward trade enable the Portuguese to exploit and dominate their trading partners?

u What did European conquerors adopt and change from the New World traditions they encountered?

u What military and maritime technologies advanced Portuguese exploration?

u Why did trade expand and wealth increase in sixteenth-century Asia?

Study Topics

u The impact of the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople

u The motivations, means, and effect of Portuguese exploration

u Columbus’s actions in the New World and their impact in both hemispheres

u The nature of Aztec society

u How the Conquistadors subdues the meso-American empires

u Key commodities crossing the Atlantic


u Atlantic system, Aztec empire, Columbian Exchange, conquistador, Inca empire, mestizos, New World

Colonialism and the Slave Trade

u TIGNOR: pages 483–500,  READER: Brandaon (p. 112) or Phillips (p. 118) or Walsh (p. 129)

Focus Questions

u  How did global economic integration affect economic and political systems?

u  How did European mercantilism and colonialism transform the Americas?

u  How did the slave trade affect African societies?

u Why a plantation complex in the Caribbean so valued by Europeans compared to other regions?

Study Topics

u Mercantilist beliefs and how they were applied

u The treatment of slaves and their role in the economic system

u The Africans’ role in the capturing of slave

u Effects of slave trade on different African societies

u Differences between colonies established by England, France, Holland, and Spain and reasons for those differences


u plantation, mercantilism

Evolutions in Monarchy

u TIGNOR: pages 514–522

Focus Questions

u Why did Europe’s economic and political centers shift northward?

u How and why is England’s shift in monarchy sharply different from what happens to monarchies in the rest of Europe?

Study Topics

u The effects of the Thirty Years’ War

u               The changes to monarchy in 17th Century Europe

u How Russia transforms itself into a European power

u The nature of the “mercantilist wars” (e.g., the Seven Years War) and why they turned into world wars


u absolute monarchy, constitutional monarchy, English Civil War, House of Stuart, Louis XIV, westernization (Russia), Versailles palace

Transformations in Asia

u TIGNOR: pages 501–514,  READER: Dampier (p. 141) or Hamilton (p. 125)

Focus Questions

u How did global trade affect the Asian dynasties?

u How are Tokugawa Japan and Qing China’s reactions to global trade pressures similar? How are they different?

Study Topics

u How the Dutch established their commercial empire in the Dutch East Indies

u What contributed to the collapse of the Mughal and the Ottoman political power

u Why the Ming dynasty collapsed and the origins of the Qing dynasty; the role of global trade in these events

u The Japanese response to European trade pressure


u Canton system, Manchus, monetization, Qing dynasty, Tokugawa shogunate, Dutch East India Company (VOC)

cultural change: asia, Africa, americas

u TIGNOR: pages 536–542; 549–558, READER: Xu (p. 148) or Han (p. 150)

Focus Questions

u  How did world trade begin to change world cultures?

u  How and why did Chinese and Japanese governments attempt to control culture and knowledge?

u  How did involvement in the slave trade reshape African cultures?

u  How did cultural developments in the Americas reflect global entanglements?

u  What role did “race” play in how Europeans viewed others, especially those from Oceania?

Study Topics

u Cultural flourishing in 17th and 18th century China and elsewhere

u The complexities of cultural change under Tokugawa Japan

u The new types of collective identity that emerge in the New World

u The effectiveness of Christianization of native Americans

u The exploits of Captain Cook and what they represent

u How the Europeans went about classifying the world, and the effects of their ideas and efforts


u cartography, creoles, peninsulars, “Dutch learning,” ukiyo

Cultural Change: Enlightenment

u TIGNOR: pages 525–535; 542–549, READER: de Busbecq (p. 143) or Voltaire (p. 162) or Smith (p. 165)

Focus Questions

u How did the Islamic empires mix cultures?

u What were the major tenets of Enlightenment thought?

Study Topics

u Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid attitudes toward culture and diversity

u The nature of the “new science” and its legacies

u The origins, concepts, and means of spreading the Enlightenment


u Enlightenment, laissez-faire, Locke, tabula rasa, Hobbes’s Leviathan, Voltaire, invisible hand

Political Change: The Atlantic Revolutions

u TIGNOR: pages 561–580,  READER: “Rights of Man” (p. 170) or de Gouges (p. 173) or Robespierre (p. 177)

Focus Questions

u How did Enlightenment ideas transform the world?

u What major changes in government and society grew out of the Atlantic revolutions?

u How did abolition of the slave trade affect African society?

Study Topics

u Contributions to the origins of the American Revolution

u Why the American colonists won

u Contributions to the origins of the French Revolution

u The reasons for and effect of the Radical shift in the French Revolution

u The changes the French Republic tried to make socially in France

u The reasons for Napoleon’s rise and success—as a general; as a politician

u The elements of Napoleon’s fall

u Napoleon’s contributions to world history

u The similarities and differences of the other Atlantic revolutions (Caribbean, Central and  South American)

u The effects of the ending of the trans-Atlantic slave trade—on Europe, the Americas, Africa


u natural rights, Federalists, Shays’s Rebellion, Third Estate, Jacobins, Congress of Vienna, Simón Bolívar, nationalism, social contract

Economic Change: The Industrial Revolution

u TIGNOR: pages 580–597, READER: “Testimony” (p. 190) or Valentia (p. 186)

Focus Questions

u How did the industrial revolution reorder society?

u How did the Atlantic revolutions affect Afro-Eurasian societies?

Study Topics

u The exploitation of the British factory workers

u How and why industrialization developed in the British textile industry

u The nature of reform in Egypt

u Increasing British influence in India and the effect

u British trade in China and the Qing response; the origins and effects of the Opium War


u bourgeoisie, Opium War, free labor/free markets/free trade, industrial revolution



online review

In addition, you may want to make use of the online review material posted by the publisher of the textbook. The links are below.

Please remember, however, that you are responsible for the contents of not just the textbook, but the selections from the reader and the discussion in our class meetings as well.


Chapter Summaries

Chapter Outlines

Interactive Quizzes