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THE EXAM

The exam will consist of:

  • Identification and Impact — I’ll have a few terms and ask you to discuss what they mean and their impact or importance.
    • You’ll choose the terms you’re most comfortable writing about from a selection (so if I ask you to write 5, there might be 10 to choose from).
    • All of the terms will come from this sheet. (I’ve tried to limit the terms for each topic to four or five, most of which should be familiar.)
    • Remember, the definition itself (check the glossary in the text) will only be half of this question — you’ll also need to discuss why it’s important.
  • Essays — I will ask you to write two essays having to do with overall themes of the course.
  • There will be some kind of extra credit. The essays will count for most of the grade on the exam (around 60 percent).

TOPICS

I. Early Greece and the Bronze Age

  • The Land of Greece – Greece and the Near East in the “Final Neolithic” Period (c. 4000-3000 BC) – Greece in the Early and Middle Bronze Ages (c. 3000-1600 BC) – the Discovery of Aegean Civilization: Troy, Mycenae, Knossos – Minoan Civilization – Greece and the Aegean in Late Bronze Age (1600-1200 BC) – the Years of Glory (c. 1400-1200 BC) – the End of the Mycenaean Civilization
  • How were the Minoans different from the Mycenaeans? What did they have in common, and why?
  • What kind of economy does Bronze Age Hellas have?
  • What factors might have led to a war between the Mycenaeans and Troy?
  • What factors help bring about the end of Mycenaean Greece?
  • terms: Bronze Age – Linear B – Minoans – Mycenaeans – palace state – primary sources – Anatolia

II. The “Dark Age” of Greece and the Eighth-Century “Renaissance” (c. 1200-700 BC)

  • Decline and Recovery (c. 1150-900 BC) – the New Society of the Dark Age – Revival (c. 900-750 BC) – Homer and Oral Poetry – Late Dark Age (Homeric) Society – Community, Household, and Economy in the Late Dark Age – the End of the Dark Age (c. 750-700 BC)
  • What is the dark age and why is it called that? What kind of society and economy were common in Hellas during this period?
  • What roles do Homer and Hesiod play in early Greek society, and why?
  • Why do the Greeks lose the technology of writing, and how do they recover it?
  • terms: Dark Age – xenia – Hesiod – Homer – time – arete – rhapsode

III. Archaic Greece (c. 700-480 BC)

  • The Formation of the City-State (Polis) – the Ethnos – Government in the Early City-States – the Colonizing Movement – Economic and Social Divisions in the Early Poleis – Hesiod: the View from Below – the Hoplite Army – the Archaic Age Tyrants – Art and Architecture – Lyric Poetry – Philosophy and Science – Relations Between States – Panhellenic Institutions
  • What are the characteristics of the polis?
  • What are the effects of the introduction of hoplite warfare?
  • How do colonies relate to their mother cities?
  • terms: agora – aristoi – hoplite – colony – phalanx – polis – symposion

IV. Sparta

  • The Dark Age and the Archaic Period – the Spartan System – Demography and the Spartan Economy – Spartan Government – Sparta and Greece – Historical Change in Sparta – the Spartan Mirage in Western Thought
  • How would the Spartans explain their warrior society? How does this pursuit make Sparta different for other poleis?
  • How does Sparta make possible a class of men dedicated to the craft of war?
  • What role do women play in Spartan society?
  • terms: agoge – helot – homoioi – Messenia – perioikoi

V. The Growth of Athens and the Persian Wars

  • Athens from the Bronze Age to the Early Archaic Age – the Reforms of Solon – Pisistratus and His Sons – the Reforms of Cleisthenes – the Rise of Persia – the Wars Between Greece and Persia – the Other War: Carthage and the Greek Cities of Sicily
  • How and why does Persia invade the Aegean world? How are the two invasions different?
  • What factors allow the Greeks to prevail against the Persians in these two invasions?
  • How is Hellas different after the Persian invasions? How does it relate to Athenian hegemony and the Delian League?
  • What are the stages involved in the development of Athenian democracy? What factors drive Athens in this direction? How do these developments affect class and society?
  • terms: Solon – Cleisthenes – Battle of Salamis – Battle of Thermopylae – satrap

The Clouds

  • What are the major conflicts in The Clouds?
  • How do these conflicts in the play relate to Athenian society at the time?
  • What messages is Aristophanes trying to communicate? What techniques does he use?

VI. The Rivalries of the Greek City-States and the Growth of Athenian Democracy

  • The Aftermath of the Persian Wars and the Foundation of the Delian League – the “First” (Undeclared) Peloponnesian War (460-445 BC) – Pericles and the Growth of Athenian Democracy – Literature and Art – Oikos and Polis – the Greek Economy
  • What factors are involved in the Undeclared War? How is this conflict different from the Peloponnesian War that begins in 431?
  • Given that Athens is a democracy, how does someone like Pericles become preeminent?
  • terms: hegemony – metic – Thucydides – Thirty Years’ Peace

VII. Greece On the Eve of the Peloponnesian War

  • Greece After the Thirty Years’ Peace – the Breakdown of the Peace – Resources for War – Intellectual Life in Fifth-Century Greece – Historical and Dramatic Literature of the Fifth Century – Currents in Greek Thought and Education – the Physical Space of the Polis: Athens on the Eve of War
  • Why does Athens become a center of cultural innovation? What role does this play in Athenian society?
  • How do cultural developments in classical Hellas affect women?
  • What developments stand out in history, drama, comedy, poetry, sculpture, and philosophy?
  • terms: Corcyra – sophist – pan-Hellenism

VIII. The Peloponnesian War

  • The Archidamian War (431-421 BC) – the Rise of Comedy – Between Peace and War – the Invasion of Sicily (415-413 BC) – the War in the Aegean and the Oligarchic Coup at Athens (413-411 BC) – Fallout from the Long War – the War in Retrospect
  • What are the long-term causes of the conflict between Athens and Sparta?
  • What incidents are the immediate causes of war?
  • What strengths and weaknesses does each side have?
  • In what ways does Alcibiades affect the war?
  • What makes it possible for Sparta to win this war?
  • How is Hellas different after this war?
  • terms: Alcibiades – Melos – Socrates – Sicilian Expedition

IX. The Crisis of the Polis and the Age of Shifting Hegemonies

  • Postwar Greece and the Struggle for Hegemony – Law and Democracy in Athens – the Fourth-Century Polis – Philosophy and the Polis
  • What is the fourth-century crisis? What brings it about?
  • How is war different in the fourth century?
  • How does the Second Athenian Empire compare to the First?
  • What advantages does Thebes have in its fight for hegemony? What vulnerability of Sparta’s do they exploit?
  • What philosophical ideas emerge in the fourth century? How are they a product of the time?
  • terms: Crisis of the Fourth Century – Aristotle – Plato – peltast – Sacred Band (Thebes) – King’s Peace

X. Phillip II and the Rise of Macedon

  • Early Macedonia – Macedonian Society and Kingship – the Reign of Philip II – Macedonian Domination of Greece
  • What elements of Macedonian society, state, and culture would have made the Greeks consider them to be barbarians?
  • What factors prevented Macedon from impacting on Hellas before Philip?
  • What reforms does Philip accomplish in Macedonian politics and society? What military reforms?
  • How does Philip become progressively more involved in Greek affairs?
  • How do the Athenians respond to Philip’s increasing power in Hellas?
  • terms: Amphictyonic Council – Philip II – Demosthenes – sarissa

XI. Alexander the Great

  • Consolidating Power – From Issus to Egypt: Conquest of the Eastern Mediterranean (332-331 BC) – From Alexandria to Persepolis: the King of Asia (331-330 BC) – the High Road to India: Alexander in Central Asia – India and the End of the Dream – Return to the West
  • How are Philip and Alexander similar? How are they different?
  • Was Alexander Greek?
  • What was Alexander trying to accomplish? What did he accomplish?
  • What made possible the extent of Alexander’s conquest?
  • terms: Alexander III – Battle of Issus – hellenistic – diodochoi

XII. Alexander’s Successors

  • Struggle for Succession – Regency of Perdiccas – Antigonus the One-Eyed – Birth Pangs of a New Order – The Place of the Polis in the Cosmopolis – Macedonian Kingdoms – Hellenistic Society – Alexandria and Hellenistic Culture – Social Relations in the Hellenistic World
  • What is the nature of the hellenistic world? How is it different from the Greek world from which it derives?
  • Terms: Epicurus – Alexandrian library – Seleucus – stoicism