Reform of the Comitia Centuriata
Source: Dion. Hal. RA 4.20-21. Translated by Earnest Cary. In The Roman Antiquities of Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Loeb classical library. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard
University Press, 1937.
Having by this means laid upon the rich the whole burden of
both the dangers and expenses and observing that they hand discontented, he
contrived by another method to relieve their uneasiness and mitigate their resentment
by granting to them an advantage which would make them complete masters of the
commonwealth, while he excluded the poor from any part in the government; and
he effected this without the plebeians noticing it. This advantage that he gave
to the rich related to the assemblies, where the matters of greatest moment
were ratified by the people.
I have already said before that by the ancient laws the people
had control over the three most important and vital matters: they elected the
magistrates, both civil and military; they sanctioned and repealed laws; and
they declared war and made peace. In discussing and deciding these matters they
voted by curiae, and citizens of the smallest means had an equal vote with
those of the greatest; but as the rich were few in number, as may well be
supposed, and the poor much more numerous, the latter carried everything by a
majority of votes.
Tullius, observing this, transferred this preponderance of
votes from the poor to the rich. For whenever he thought proper to have
magistrates elected, a law considered, or war to be declared, he assembled the
people by centuries instead of by curiae. And the first centuries that he
called to express their opinion were those with the highest rating, consisting of the eighteen centuries of
cavalry and the eighty centuries of infantry.
As these centuries amounted to three more than all the rest
together, if they agreed they prevailed over the others and the matter was
decided. But in case these were not all of the same mind, then he called the
twenty-two centuries of the second class; and if the votes were still divided,
he called the centuries of the third class, and, in the fourth place, those of
the fourth class; and this he continued to do till ninety-seven centuries
concurred in the same opinion.
And if after the calling of the fifth class this had not yet
happened but the opinions of the hundred and ninety-two centuries were equally
divided, he then called the last century, consisting of the mass of the
citizens who were poor and for that reason exempt from all military service and
taxes; and whichever side this century joined, that side carried the day. But
this seldom happened and was next to impossible. Generally the 1n was
determined by calling the first class, and it rarely went as far as the fourth;
so that the fifth and the last were superfluous.
In establishing this political system, which gave so great an
advantage to the rich, Tullius outwitted the people, as I said, without their
noticing it and excluded the poor from any part in public affairs. For they all
thought that they had an equal share in the government because every man was
asked his opinion, each in his own century; but they were deceived in this,
that the whole century, whether it consisted of a small or a very large number
of citizens, had but one vote; and also in that the centuries which voted
first, consisting of men of the highest rating, though they were more in number
than all the rest, yet contained fewer citizens; but, above all, in that the
poor, who were very numerous, had but one vote and were the last called.
When this had been brought about, the rich, though paying out
large sums and exposed without intermission to the dangers of war, were less
inclined to feel aggrieved now that they had obtained control of the most
important matters and had taken the whole power out of the hands of those who
were not performing the same services; and the poor, who had but the slightest
share in the government, finding themselves exempt both from taxes and from
military service, prudently and quietly submitted to this diminution of their
power; and the commonwealth itself had the advantage of seeing the same persons
who were to deliberate concerning its interests allotted the greatest share of
the dangers and ready to do whatever required to be done.
This form of government was maintained by the Romans for many
generations, but is altered in our times and changed to a more democratic form,
some urgent needs having forced the change, which was effected, not by abolishing
the centuries, but by no longer observing the strict ancient manner of calling
fact which I myself have noted, having often been present at the elections of
their magistrates. But this is not the proper occasion to discuss these