Final exam: Thursday, May 22, 6:00–8:00 p.m., CA 211.
All papers and revisions due by email no later than Tuesday, May 27.

← Return to icons

PDF version of this document
Direct link to this page

Course Syllabus

“Can any one be so indifferent or idle as not to care to know by what means, and under what kind of government, almost the whole inhabited world was conquered and brought under the dominion of the single city of Rome?”

Course Info
HIA 321, section 81W

Spring 2014

Room CA 211
6:00 – 8:40 p.m.

Mark Wilson

(718) 960-8288

Office Hours
Room CA-292

Tuesdays and Thursdays

11:00 a.m. – 12:00 p.m.


The colossal achievement of the Romans—a single city indelibly suffusing its unique sensibility through the entire ancient Mediterranean world—is only part of the Roman story. The people of Rome gained economic, political, military, and cultural dominance over the ancient West and laid the foundations for the medieval and modern worlds through a fascinating mixture of synthesis and adaptation, on the one hand, and unshakable faith in the Roman identity, on the other. How the Romans acquired an empire, and how that empire constantly reshaped Roman society, tells us not only about the Western civilization that descended from them, but about the dynamics of society, empire, and power.


Foundation and development of the Roman state, including the rise and decline of the Roman Republic and the establishment and fall of the Empire, with emphasis on its political, economic, social, and cultural achievements.

Specific Learning Objectives

In this course we’ll be pursuing a number of goals, including:

  • Exploration of the emergence of Roman civilization and its implications for humanity;
  • Relation of the cultures and beliefs of other ancient Mediterranean societies to those of Rome;
  • Exploration of the transformation of Roman social, military, religious, and other norms from the emergence of Rome as a city-state to its dominion of the Mediterranean world;
  • Discussion of the relationship between the ideals of Roman tradition and the modern Western ethos; and
  • Development of the skills associated with the study of history, including the interpretation of primary sources and other evidence.

Course Requirements

Course Readings

The following two books are required:

Allen M. Ward, Fritz Heichelheim, & Cedric Yeo.
A History of the Roman People,
6th edition.
Pearson, 2014.
ISBN: 978-0-205-84679-5.
  De Roma: Excerpts from Ancient
Writers About Rome
2nd edition.
CreateSpace, 2013.
ISBN: 978-1-481-90543-5.

Make sure you get the right edition of the textbook, especially if you’re buying a used copy. The sixth edition is new and the page numbers may not match up with earlier editions.

If you prefer, an online version of the Reader is available on the course website. Links to individual excerpts can be found on the Schedule page.

Both are available from Lehman College Bookstore, either in person or online. (The website URL for the bookstore is They are also available from Amazon and other online retailers. If you order online, make sure you do so enough in advance that you’ll receive the books in time for the assignments. For more info on getting the books, click here.


Class attendance is required. Missing classes will damage your grade. The textbook is designed to give you the basics; it's in class that we try to make sense of things and sift out what's important. Missing classes means you miss out on a key part of our trying to put things together. Plus, if you miss classes or habitually arrive late, you'll miss quizzes, which will put a big crimp in your grade for the course.

Religious observances that affect your class attendance should be discussed in advance.

Make-up exams are given only in cases of documented medical emergencies.

Submitting Assignments

You may email me your written assignments, but it doesn't "count" unless you get an email back from me saying I received it. Unless I reply back to you, I didn't receive it. If there's any question about whether I'm receiving your emails, please talk to me about it in class. I will accept only the following file formats: DOCX, DOC, RTF, ODT, and PDF.

Late assignments will be marked down. Written assignments will be marked down one letter grade per class meeting after the assignment due date, up to a maximum of 30 points. That means you're still better off turning in your paper late, and having it be marked down, than not turning it in at all.


Your grade for the course will be determined from the following:

Quizzes 15%
Presentation and Write-Up on a Primary Source (2) 20%
Representations and Images Paper 10%
Position Paper 25%
Final Exam 30%

I do not give extra credit opportunities except to the entire class. I do not grade on a curve.


  • We’ll have very short quizzes at the start of most class meetings, to help gauge our relationship with the material in the readings.
  • Quizzes are based on the readings for that class in both the textbook and the additional readings. If you did your reading for the class, you should be prepared for the quiz. Quizzes are always based on the readings listed on the assignment sheet, even if I am slightly behind the syllabus in the topics I discuss in class. Make sure you do the assigned readings.
  • Missed quizzes are not made up. If you come late to class and miss a quiz, you’ll get a zero for that quiz. Therefore, please make sure you come to class on time and prepared.

Presentation and Write-Up on a Primary Source (2)

  • You’ll make two short presentations on a primary source excerpt from the Reader: one during the first half of the course, and another during the second half. Your presentation will give the class your perspective on what this reading means and how it relates to the material being discussed in the course.
  • Your presentation will be given the day that that reading is assigned on the schedule.
  • A 2–3 page write-up of your take on the reading is due the following class.

Representations and Images Paper

  • For this paper, you’ll take in your choice of various nonwritten artistic depictions of ancient Rome, including sculpture, painting, performance, or film, and relate them with primary sources in order to compare the history of Rome with how it has been represented.
  • We’ll talk about what’s expected, and I’ll have a handout with the specific assignment.

Position Paper

  • You’ll write an essay discussing a turning point in Roman history of your choice, examining the source material, causes, and effects of the event or transformation and drawing your own conclusions about its meaning.
  • We’ll talk about what’s expected, and I’ll have a handout with the specific assignment. Your essay will be based on your assessment of the reading and its context in the society that produced it, both of which will be discussed thoroughly in class.
  • I’ll ask you to submit a proposal for the paper partway through the semester, so I can give you feedback on what you’re planning to write about.
  • You can submit a draft of the paper up to two weeks before it’s due; I’ll give general feedback (but not a grade). Because I accept drafts, I do not allow students to submit revised versions of their final paper after the final due date.

Final Exam

  • A final exam will be given in which you will interpret the major themes of the course.


Don't waste this opportunity! Make the most out of this class.

Please use me as a resource. Come to my office hours, talk to me after class, or send me emails with any questions you have-whether they relate to the requirements of the course or ideas we're reading about or discussing in class.

Be on time and prepared. By prepared, I mean you should come into class having done the readings for that day and thought about them. Come in ready to talk about your reactions to the readings and the questions they raised in your mind.

Check your email. Make sure I have a good email address for you and check it, as I occasionally send information and updates by email. If you have not gotten an email from me within the first week after school begins, check your spam folders. If you can't find an email from me, email me to let me know.

Cell phones and electronics need to be silenced and stowed. A phone ringing during class is hugely disruptive. Texting during class is just as rude and insulting as talking on the phone.

Talk to me if you're struggling. Come to me in office hours or after class, and the sooner the better. Don't wait until it's too late to turn things around.

Academic Policies

Academic Integrity

Lehman College is committed to the highest standards of academic honesty. Acts of academic dishonesty include-but are not limited to-plagiarism (in drafts, outlines, and examinations, as well as final papers), cheating, bribery, academic fraud, sabotage of research materials, the sale of academic papers, and the falsification of records. An individual who engages in these or related activities or who knowingly aids another who engages in them is acting in an academically dishonest manner and will be subject to disciplinary action. Plagiarism includes the incorporation of any material that is not original with you without attribution, whether from a book, article, web site, or fellow student, in any paper or assignment. Assignments that include any plagiarism will receive a zero and the offending student will be subject to additional action by the College. Students engaging in repeated instances of plagiarism will fail the course outright and will be remanded to the College for disciplinary action.

For more:

Accommodations for Students with Disabilities

Lehman College is committed to providing access to all programs and curricula to all students. Students with disabilities who may need classroom accommodations are encouraged to register with the Office of Student Disability Services. For more information, please contact the Office of Student Disability Services, Shuster Hall, Room 238; phone number: (718) 960-8441.

PDF version of this document
Direct link to this page

Schedule of Readings and Assignments

To prepare for each meeting, you need to read:

  1. All of the listed sections from the textbook (Ward et al.) and
  2. At least one of the primary source readings from the Reader (marked with a red star).

Note on the textbook readings: Ward writes short chapters around specific topics. I’ve kept the readings about the same from week to week.

1 Thu Jan 30 Introduction and Evidence

2 Thu Feb 6 Tribes and Kings
I. Roman History: Its Geographic and Human Foundations Ward 1–10
Read all of this II. Phoenicians, Greeks, and Etruscans in Pre-Roman Italy Ward 11–27
III. Early Rome to 500 B.C. Ward 28–39
DIONYSIUS/On the Subject of Roman History  Reader 1
DIONYSIUS/Early Rules for Clients and Patrons  Reader 2
Read at least LIVY/Numa’s Religious Settlement  Reader 3
one of these LIVY/The Capture of the Sabine Women  Reader 4
DIONYSIUS/Servius Tullius’s Reform of the Comitia Centuriata  Reader 5
LIVY/The Rape of Lucretia  Reader 6

Thu Feb 13 Meeting lost due to inclement weather

3 Thu Feb 27 Patrician and Plebeian
IV. Early Roman Society, Religion, and Values Ward 40–55
V. From Tyrant Kings to Oligarchic Republic Ward 56–74
DIONYSIUS/Coriolanus Opposes the Plebs  Reader 7
DIONYSIUS/The Tribunes and their Manipulation  Reader 9
FRAGMENTS/The Twelve Tables  Reader 11
LIVY, DIONYSIUS/The Roman Way of Declaring War  Reader 12
CICERO, DIONYSIUS/The Mythology of the Farmer General  Reader 14
LIVY/The Defeat of the Latins  Reader 15
POLYBIUS/The Constitution of the Roman Republic  Reader 17

4 Thu Mar 6 Conquering the West
VI. The Roman Conquest of Italy and Its Impact Ward 75–89
VII. The First Punic War, Northern Italy, and Illyrian Pirates Ward 90–101
VIII. War with Hannibal: The Second Punic War Ward 102–111
POLYBIUS/The Roman Maniple vs. the Macedonian Phalanx  Reader 19
LIVY/The Samnites’ ‘Linen Legion’ Remains Undaunted  Reader 21
CORNELIUS NEPOS/Hannibal  Reader 21
POLYBIUS/The Battle of Cannæ  Reader 25
LIVY, PRUDENTIUS/The Magna Mater  Reader 28
POLYBIUS/The Siege of Syracuse  Reader 29

5 Thu Mar 13 Acquisition of Empire
IX. Roman Imperialism East and West Ward 112–128
X. The Transformation of Roman Life Ward 129–142
XI. The Great Cultural Synthesis Ward 143–153
POLYBIUS/The Destruction of Corinth  Reader 31
LIVY/Cato Opposes Extravagance  Reader 33
PLAUTUS/From The Menaechmi  Reader 35
VARIOUS/Accounts of the Roman State Religion  Reader 50
VARIOUS/Slavery in the Roman Republic  Reader 53

6 Thu Mar 20 Optimates and Populares
Position Paper Proposal due
XII. The Gracchi and the Struggle over Reforms Ward 154–164
XIII. Destructive Rivalries, Marius, and the Social War Ward 165–175
XIV. Civil War and Sulla’s Reactionary Settlement Ward 176–183
APPIAN/On Tiberius Gracchus  Reader 38
PLUTARCH/On Tiberius Gracchus  Reader 41
APPIAN/On Gaius Gracchus  Reader 43
SALLUST/Speech of Marius Against the Nobility  Reader 45
APPIAN AND PLUTARCH/Mithridates Against Rome  Reader 48
APPIAN/Drusus and his Enemies  Reader 48
LIVY, APPIAN/Sulla’s Brutality  Reader 55

7 Thu Mar 27 Crossing the Rubicon
XV. Personal Ambitions: The Failure of Sulla’s Optimate Oligarchy Ward 184–199
XVI. Caesar Wins and Is Lost Ward 200–216
SALLUST/Pompey’s Letter to the Senate  Reader 60
CICERO/Against Catiline  Reader 61
APPIAN/Pompey’s Conquest of the East  Reader 65
ASCONIUS/The Murder of Clodius  Reader 66
SUETONIUS/On Julius Caesar  Reader 71

8 Thu Apr 3 End of the Republic
Representations & Images Paper due
XVII. The Last Years of the Republic Ward 217–230
XVIII. Social, Economic, and Cultural Life in the Late Republic Ward 231–249
PLUTARCH/The Assassination of Julius Caesar  Reader 74
Q. CICERO/The Roman Candidate  Reader 57
SALLUST/Life in Rome in the Late Republic  Reader 59
CICERO/Scipio’s Dream  Reader 68
CICERO/On the Rise of Augustus  Reader 76

9 Thu Apr 10 Augustus, Princeps, Imperator
XIX. The Principate of the Early Roman Empire Takes Shape Ward 250–262
XX. Imperial Stabilization under Augustus Ward 263–278
XXI. The Impact of Augustus on Roman Imperial Life and Culture Ward 279–293
CATULLUS/Selections  Reader 79
HORACE/The Secular Hymn  Reader 80
VELLEIUS PATERCULUS/The Battle of Teutoburg Forest  Reader 81
AUGUSTUS/Acts of the Divine Augustus  Reader 83
TACITUS/The Death of Augustus and the Accession of Tiberius Nero  Reader 87

10 Thu Apr 24 Succession and Empire
Position Paper Optional Draft due
XXII. The First Two Julio–Claudian Emperors: Tiberius and Gaius Ward 294–305
XXIII. Claudius, Nero, and the End of the Julio–Claudians Ward 306–316
XXIV. The Crisis of the Principate and Recovery under the Flavians Ward 317–326
CLAUDIUS/A Speech on Incorporating the Gauls  Reader 90
SENECA/The Pumpkinification of Claudius  Reader 91
TACITUS/The Principle of Adoption  Reader 95
TACITUS/The Legions Proclaim Vespasian Emperor  Reader 96
JOSEPHUS/The Roman Army in the First Century CE  Reader 97
LEGAL TEXT/Law Concerning the Power of Vespasian  Reader 99
PLINY THE YOUNGER/Panegyric Addressed to the Emperor Trajan  Reader 102
PLINY THE YOUNGER/Correspondence of a Governor and the Emperor  Reader 103
SUETONIUS/How Domitian Attempted to Amuse the Populace  Reader 107

11 Thu May 1 The Roman Peace
XXV. The Five “Good” Emperors of the Second Century Ward 327–342
XXVI. Culture, Society, and Economy in the First Two Centuries A.D. Ward 343–366
PLINY THE ELDER/The Grandeur of Rome  Reader 100
STRABO, OXYRHYNCHOS PAPYRI/Egypt under the Roman Empire  Reader 105
VARIOUS/Roman Educational Practices  Reader 108
MARCUS AURELIUS/On the Virtue of Antoninus Pius  Reader 109
EUTROPIUS/The Reign of Marcus Aurelius  Reader 110

12 Thu May 8 Third Century Crisis
XXVII. Conflicts and Crises under Commodus and the Severi Ward 367–381
XXVIII. The Third-Century Anarchy Ward 382–391
XXIX. Changes in Roman Life and Culture during the Third Century Ward 392–407
ZOSIMUS/Imperial Weakness Invites Barbarian Aggression  Reader 113
EUSEBIUS/The Persecution under Decius  Reader 116
VOPISCUS/Aurelian’s Conquest of Palmyra  Reader 118
HERODIAN/How Didius Julianus Bought the Empire at Auction  Reader 110
VARIOUS/The Lives of Soldiers and Sailors  Reader 111
AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS/The Luxury of the Rich in Rome  Reader 124

13 Thu May 15 The New Empire
Position Paper due
XXX. Diocletian: Creating the Fourth-Century Empire Ward 408–419
XXXI. Constantine the Great and Christianity Ward 420–431
XXXII. From Constantine’s Dynasty to Theodosius the Great Ward 432–438
XXXIII. The Evolving World of Late Antiquity in the Fourth Century A.D. Ward 439–453
DIOCLETIAN AND CONSTANTINE/Efforts to Stabilize the Economy  Reader 119
EUSEBIUS/The Conversion of Constantine  Reader 120
CONSTANTINE/The Edict of Milan  Reader 121
SOZOMEN/Constantine Founds Constantinople, 324 CE  Reader 122
JULIAN/Letter to Arsacius  Reader 123
PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA/Alaric’s Sack of Rome, 410 CE  Reader 125
RUTILIUS NAMATIANUS/The Greatness of Rome in the Days of Ruin  Reader 127
JORDANES/The Battle of Chalôns, 451 CE  Reader 127

Thu May 22 Final Exam

Important Dates

Thu Feb 20 Monday classes meet
Tue Feb 18 Last day to drop
Thu Apr 24 Deadline to withdraw
Apr 14–22 Spring Break
Thu Apr 3 Representations & Images Paper due
Thu Mar 20 Position Paper Proposal due
Thu Apr 24 ” ” Optional Draft due
Thu May 15 ” ” Final Draft due
Thu May 22 Final Exam (6:00 –8:00 p.m.)
PDF version of this document
Direct link to this page

Writing Assignments

Remember that, as always, I am looking for your opinion and how well you support it with evidence; these essays are less about “right answers” than they are about well-supported ideas.

For each essay your conclusion should address the following: How, specifically, does the source material, as you have interpreted it, reflect what the creators are trying to say about their society?

You may, but are not required to, use (and cite) secondary sources to add perspective to your analysis.

Position Paper

Final Draft Due Thursday, May 8

Write a 6–8 page position paper in which you express an opinion about a topic related to Roman history, and use evidence to back up that opinion. In other words, you’re taking a side on some question or controversy, and you use reasoning and research to support your side of the argument.

  • For your topic, choose one of the 13 meeting topics for the course and decide on a controversy or debate that pertains to that topic.
  • You can choose something that the people at the time might have debated — e.g., “Is Greek culture degrading Roman virtue and old-fashioned values?” as a question arising in the late Republic, or a question arising among modern historians — e.g., “Did the Roman empire arise through conscious imperialism or ad hoc reactions to events?” In each case you need to outline both sides of the question in your paper and then provide evidence why you think one side was right.
  • Choose a topic you’re interested in and have fun with it. Make it wacky, make it provocative — anything is fine as long as you make an argument regarding your chosen topic and support it with facts.
  • You must use at least three sources. Ideally you should have a mix of primary and secondary sources.
  • You must submit a proposal by March 20 with a provisional topic and thesis. (See next section for more on what I’m looking for in the proposal.)
  • You may submit an optional draft by April 24. It should include most of your paper (at least two thirds of the final content, with sections to be written described in square brackets). I will give feedback, but not a grade, to help you refine your final paper.
  • Because I accept optional drafts, I do not accept revisions of content after the final paper has been submitted and graded—though some formatting and citations errors can be corrected and resubmitted. (See “Requirements for All Papers” handout for more.)

Position Paper Proposal

The proposal is just a brief one-page preview of your position paper that includes the following:

  • The topic you think you’ll want to write about and the problem you’re interested in addressing. You should be able to delineate the problem by describing the opposing views people might take. To make sure you have two clear opposing opinions, you might want to express them in the form “Some say… . Others say… .”
  • Your preliminary thesis statement—in other words, what you think you might be arguing in your paper.

    Your thesis statement, both here and in the final paper, should be a statement of opinion that someone could disagree with. It can take the form of following up the description of the opposing opinions with your own: “I believe… .”

    Remember that your thesis is provisional. You can change anything about your approach and interpretation after the proposal; in fact, uncovering information as you do your research makes refining or changing your initial assessments very likely.
  • These items are essentially the model for your introduction, as you can see from this sample intro:
Hannibal Barca, the great Carthaginian general, brought 37 war elephants with him over the Alps into Italy, and at the climactic Battle of Zama they had a front line that included 80 elephants. Did Hannibal’s elephants really make a difference? Some say that Hannibal’s elephants were crucial in establishing the morale of his troops against the legendary Roman legions and in intimidating other armies along the way into alliances; but others say that Hannibal’s elephants did the Carthaginian side more harm than good in their fight with Rome. I believe that Hannibal’s use of elephants was a mistake, not because war elephants were a dumb idea in general, but because Roman adaptability meant that the Romans would inevitably find a way around them.
Opposing sides
Thesis statement
  • In addition, in the proposal you should also outline any thoughts you have so far on what kinds of evidence you think will help you make your case in the final paper.

I’ll respond to the proposal with feedback and suggestions to help you map out your research and writing.

Presentation Write-Ups

Due at the class meeting after your presentation

Write a 2–3 page essay that does the following:

  • Briefly summarizes what the document says and, more importantly, analyzes what the author is trying to say about the subject at hand. In other words, you need to identify and discuss what you believe is the author’s interpretation, bias, and point of view and how it affected the author’s treatment of the topic. Give examples from the document that illustrate your assessment of the author’s spin.
  • Provides perspective by relating the material in the document, and the author’s bias on it, to the bigger picture—the material being discussed in class.
  • Incorporates any responses that came up in class after your presentation, and your own reactions to them.

Essay on Representations and Images

Due Thursday, April 3

Write a 3 page essay based on ONE of the two following topic questions.

Whichever option you choose, the purpose of this essay is NOT to describe the works in question, but to interpret their meaning and discuss analytically what they tell us about how different kinds of artists and creators represent the ancient peoples and their world.

Option 1 – Artifacts comparison

Visit any museum exhibition or collection of art, architecture, or other artifacts of the ancient Roman world. Choose two or three comparable artworks from different eras, from different places, or both.

The question: If art is an expression of cultural values, what do the differences between these works tell you about the respective cultures they come from? What do their similarities tell you about what these ancient societies have in common?

Make sure to look for items with the same, or comparable, subjects, that come from different times or from different places. For example: a Roman statue of a young man and a statue of a young man from a Roman province, or a decorated vase from the Republic period and one from the Principate or Dominate period. (For possible venues, see next page.)

You must describe in detail how what you see leads you to concrete conclusions about these ancient peoples. Be bold, be provocative, and be specific.

Important: On a separate “Works Discussed” page after your essay, list the title of each work, the artist, the approximate date it was created, and the name of the museum gallery where the work can be found.

Also on the “Works Discussed” page, paste in photographs of the items. If it’s permitted at the museum, take a picture of the items while you’re there. If it’s not, find pictures of them on the museum’s web site or via a Google Images search.

Option 2 – Films and sources

Watch any feature-length film that seriously depicts the ancient Roman world and compare it with a primary source—written evidence about that society or those events.

The question: Both the movie and the written evidence are artistic interpretations of reality. Use at least two specific events or characters to compare the filmmakers’ intent and message with that of the writers of the source material. What do they want you to believe?

(For some suggested possibilities, see the next page.)

Important: On a separate “Works Discussed” page after your essay, list the title of film, year, director, stars and studio. Then list the book or books you drew your written evidence from, using standard citation style.

You may also employ secondary sources to help you interpret the film, the primary source, or both.

Some possibilities for Essay #3

Option 1 possibilities

Possible venues for the artifacts comparison option include:

You are, of course, not limited to these venues, and you are not limited to New York.

Option 2 possibilities

Some possibilities for the film and sources option include (this list is not exhaustive; I can give you specifics on where to look in the primary sources on request):

Film Possible Primary Sources to Compare
Boudica (2003) Tacitus, Annals 14.29–39, Agricola; Cassius Dio Roman History 62
Caligula (1980) [warning: explicit sex] Suetonius, Caligula; Cassius Dio, Roman History 59
The Centurion (1961) Polybius, The Histories book 38
Cleopatra (1963) Plutarch, Caesar and Antony
Gladiator (2000) Cassius Dio, Roman History 73; Herodian History 1.15; Historia Augusta, “Commodus”
I, Claudius (1976) [1-2 episodes] Tacitus, Annals books 11–12; Suetonius, Claudius
Masada (1981) Josephus, The Jewish War book 1
Pompeii: The Last Day (2003) [or other Pompeii films] Pliny the Younger’s letter to Tacitus
Quo Vadis? (1951) Tacitus, Annals 13–16; Suetonius, Nero; Cassius Dio, Roman History 61–63
Rome (2005–2007) [use 1-2 episodes] Various (see me)
Spartacus (1960) Appian, Roman History 116–120; Plutarch, Crassus 8–11
The Eagle (2011) Tacitus, Agricola

Many of these primary sources are available through the list of ancient sources and translations on my website ( via the “Ancient Texts” link at the top of the page.

PDF version of this document
Direct link to this page

Requirements for All Papers

Basic requirements

All papers submitted to me must:

  • Be typed, double-spaced, in 12 pt. Times or Arial, with one-inch margins. Please spell-check and, if you’re not sure about your writing, have a friend read it. I will not mark down for grammar, but clarity is vital.
  • Have a cover page with the title, your name, my name, and the date; and have page numbers on each page after the cover. On the course web page there’s a link to a DOCX essay template that you may find helpful.
  • Include both (a) citations for all quotations, paraphrases, information, and ideas that come from any source other than your own head, AND (b) a bibliography that lists all the sources you used. See below for more.
  • Run the required length specified in the handout for that paper—full pages mind you—plus the cover page and bibliography.

Sources and citations

Citations are crucial. All direct quotations, indirect quotations, and ideas from other sources MUST BE footnoted according to a standard citation style, and referring to a bibliography at the end of the paper. This is extremely important and failure to do this will seriously affect your grade. (See the booklet for more on citations and bibliographies.)

Note that providing citations only for direct quotes is NOT sufficient. This is a common mistake and will result in your paper being marked down. You must cite all information, paraphrases and ideas from your sources—anything that is not your own discussion and analysis.

Quality of evidence. The arguments you are making in your paper MUST BE supported by evidence from primary and/or secondary sources—ideally a balanced mix of the two. (The number of required sources depends on the assignment.) You may NOT use tertiary sources for any assignment you hand in to me. Tertiary sources include textbooks, dictionaries, encyclopedias, my lectures, and almost everything on the internet.

See me for guidance. I am available anytime, by email or in office hours, to discuss your sources, citations, or any other aspect of your paper. There are also resources about structuring, researching, writing, and footnoting position papers on the Student Resources page of my website.

Submitting your paper

Handing it in  

The paper may be (a) handed in in class, or (b) submitted by email in a DOCX, DOC, PDF, ODT, or RTF format to Note: Your email submission only “counts” if you receive a reply back from me saying I got it. Please do not leave your paper in the bin outside my office door. As stated in the syllabus, any late submissions are marked down 10 points per class meeting.

Optional draft  

For any paper you can submit an optional draft no later than two class meetings before the due date. I won’t grade it, but I’ll give you some feedback about how well you’re addressing the topic and thesis of your paper. Your draft should be most of the paper (generally three quarters at least); for the parts you haven’t written, please insert a note in brackets that outlines what you intend to write.

General grading criteria

Your paper should

  • Start with an introduction stating the problem and your opinion on it (the thesis statement);
  • Then give evidence in the main body that supports your thesis statement, ideally in three sections treating three different aspects or issues related to the topic;
  • Then conclude by summarizing how the evidence supports your opinion.

(See the elephant booklet for more on thesis statements and structuring your paper to support your argument.)

I grade a paper by evaluating how it succeeds in a few key categories. I consider all of the following expected of a college-level position paper.

  • Introduction  The introduction is a paragraph that outlines the issue or question that the paper will address; arouses reader’s interest, fits purpose, and indicates the point of view; lays out the argument to be made in the paper; and leads up to a thesis statement of position that could be disagreed with by an informed reader, rather than a bare factual statement.
  • Organization  The paper is organized in a logical sequence, presenting a succession of ideas in turn that are each in support of the thesis, each section effectively building to develop the thesis in order to convince the reader of the argument being presented.
  • Analysis  The writer uses evidence to demonstrate the thesis; examples and evidence are discussed and analyzed to show the ways that the evidence illustrates the thesis; adequate research and sources are used; analysis predominates in the body of the paper over mere description; and the paper offers, and discusses problems with, an opposing viewpoint (counterarguments to your thesis).
  • Sources  The paper shows good use of primary and secondary sources, with no tertiary sources; the sources used are relevant and appropriate; and the discussion retains independent voice with judicious use of quotes.
  • Conclusion  The paper ends with an appropriate concluding statement; the conclusion effectively closes the paper, tying together all arguments and reinforcing thesis.


If you don’t meet the basic requirements of the paper, you’ll be marked down. So make sure you look over the requirements before submitting your paper!

Deductions you can reverse: Some kinds of deductions can be remedied by submitting a revised version of the paper within a week of the graded paper being returned. The paper will not be regraded for content. The reversible deductions are: No cover sheet; no page numbers; no bibliography; some or all citations missing.

Deductions you can’t reverse: I’ll mark you down if the paper is submitted late (10 points per class meeting up to 30 points) or if it does not meet the length requirements (significantly too short or too long). Plagiarized papers will, of course, receive a zero and possible academic disciplinary action. A successive violation will result in failure of the course and academic disciplinary action. Make sure you understand about academic dishonesty; see the syllabus for more.

PDF version of this document
Direct link to this page

Writing a Position Paper

Writing a strong, effective position paper means taking a position and using evidence to convince your reader. You will find that the skills involved in planning, structuring, and executing a strong, effective position paper will be useful to you not only in other academic assignments, but in any situation in which you want someone else to believe something.


The most important component of your paper is the position you want to convince your reader of. In a position paper, this takes the form of the thesis: a sentence at the end of your introductory paragraph that states an opinion that someone could disagree with, which you will then seek to prove in the body of your paper.

The Problem

One way of looking at a thesis is as the answer to a problem—something about a time and place that seems to need explaining. This can be phrased as a question. But it's important to take a close look at your question and see whether it will work for your paper. You need to test your question in two ways: (a) are there two or more sides historians might argue, and (b) is the scope too big or too small for the paper I am writing?

For example, if you're interested in Hannibal's war with Rome, you might first want to look at the big question: "Why did Hannibal lose?" This is a good one in terms of the first test, because historians have given lots of conflicting answers over the last 2200 years. But it's also huge, which might mean you'll be in trouble on the second test. In this case you'd want to narrow it down to a more specific question about Hannibal's war that still has different possible answers, like "Why didn't Hannibal attack Rome?" or "Did Hannibal's elephants really make a difference?"

The first test—are there different answers?—is crucial. If your question were something like "Why did Hannibal attack Rome?" you could write a long paper answering it, but it wouldn't be a position paper because there's really no disagreement: Rome was Carthage's economic nemesis; their expanding interests created inevitable conflict, leading to a previous war—one result of which was Hannibal being raised to despise the Romans. Unless you've unearthed some radical, game-changing new evidence, it would be very hard to imagine two sides to this question.

That's why I recommend that your introduction include a statement of the problem, followed by statements that might be made by historians arguing different, opposing answers. You should be able to express these competing ideas in a "some say… others say…" formula. For example, here's the start of a sample introduction:

Hannibal Barca, the great Carthaginian general, brought 37 war elephants with him over the Alps into Italy, and at the climactic Battle of Zama he had a front line that included 80 elephants. Did Hannibal's elephants really make a difference? Some say that Hannibal's elephants were crucial in establishing the morale of his troops against the legendary Roman legions and in intimidating other armies along the way into alliances; but others say that Hannibal's elephants did the Carthaginian side more harm than good in their fight with Rome.

Here the introduction is shown with three of its four important elements: setting, problem, and possible positions.

The Thesis

Your thesis, then, must provide your answer to the problem or question you've posed. If your problem meets the two tests—it has two or more possible positions and it has a manageable scope—then your thesis should easily meet the main requirement, which is that it must be a statement of opinion that someone could disagree with.

That's why something like "Hannibal Barca was a Carthaginian general" would make a bad thesis. There's no conflict, there's no possible disagreement. No one would want to read a paper attempting to prove this.

In fact the rule here is to go as far as possible in the other direction. The more radical, the better—as long as you have evidence to back it up. (More on evidence in a moment.) For example, a thesis like "Hannibal was really an extraterrestrial from the planet Mondegreen" is a wonderful thesis. Everyone would want to read the paper trying to prove this thesis—which is where the whole supporting evidence thing comes in.

The best thesis is one that states a position, and gives an extremely concise summary of the "reasons why" that you're going to give. You should be able to express your thesis using the formula "I believe… because…". For example, here's a thesis statement that might complete the partial sample introduction quoted above:

I believe that Hannibal's use of elephants was a mistake, not because war elephants were a dumb idea in general, but because Roman adaptability meant that they would inevitably find a way around them.

This thesis not only sets out what you're going to prove in your paper, but gives you the magic number of topics to cover in the body of your paper—three. Using your thesis as a guideline, you know you'll need sections on (a) why war elephants could be effective in ancient battle scenarios; (b) adaptability as a key and intrinsic trait for the Romans, especially in war; and (c) how that adaptability ended up trumping the usefulness of elephants when the Carthaginians faces the Romans. Now you just need to assemble, and discuss, the evidence available in each of these three areas.

Notice that you're supporting your thesis with three assertions that in themselves are statements of opinion—they are sort of mini-theses. This logical structure is why a position paper works to convince the reader. Your thesis rests on opinions A, B, and C. You can prove A easily using evidence. You can prove B, too, with the evidence related to that assertion. And then C flows naturally from A and B, brought home using the evidence related to C. Demonstrating that A, B, and C are true convinces your reader that your thesis is true, too.

A good thesis, in other words, provides you with the skeleton for the body of your paper.


I said before that three "reasons why" your thesis is convincing is the magic number. You can think of them as pillars, because what they're doing is supporting your argument. Plenty of papers have been written with more than three pillars, and you might be able to support an argument (for some readers) with two or even one pillar. But long experience suggests that three pillars is the most sturdy and aesthetically effective way of supporting a thesis in a position paper like this one.

The body of your paper, then, will have three sections. Each starts with the assertion you hinted at in the thesis statement. Then you provide evidence supporting that assertion, and finally you interpret that evidence, showing the reader how it effectively illustrates the assertion, and so in turn supports your overall thesis.

What evidence do you need to assemble and describe? In most historical situations, you want to provide two kinds of evidence: (a) examples from the time and place that show what you asserted was what actually happened, and (b) expert testimony from scholars who have deeply studied the relevant events or texts. In other words, you ideally want to provide both primary sources and secondary sources.

For example, in my sample thesis the first topic—my first pillar—involves discussing why war elephants are not normally a bad idea, or, to put it another way, to show that the reason Hannibal's elephants were a mistake was not that elephants were a mistake in general, because what my paper is really about is Roman adaptability as the thing that threw a wrench in the works. So I need to show that war elephants were effective in other contexts—ideally, for the Carthaginians in other wars, if possible. I do that by providing examples of effective elephants from the ancient literature. For example, I could summarize primary sources that show Alexander of Macedon using elephants effectively at the Battle of the Hydaspes River, the Seleucids using elephants well at the Battle of Ipsus and against the Maccabees, and the Ptolemaic Egyptians at the battle of Raphia. (See the Rule of Threes surfacing again? Remember, each of your three sections is making its own argument that requires convincing your reader, so three pieces of evidence are ideal.)

Primary sources provide accounts or narratives of events; you next need to talk about how and why the elephants are effective. Here's where secondary works come in. In this case, you want scholars who specialize in either ancient military tactics or specifically in Macedonian-style warfare, talking about theory behind elephant warfare and why the ancients kept turning to it during this period.

The last paragraphs of this section are for your interpretation, where you make connections between your sources. Your interpretation shows how your sources demonstrate the assertion you're making in this section, and makes it clear that this helps support your overall thesis. The rule is, you can't just throw the evidence at the reader: first describe it, then tell the reader what it means.

That means the structure of the paper so far is going to be something like this:

I. Introduction
 A. Context
 B. Question
 C. Possible positions ("some say… others say…")
 D. Thesis statement  ("I believe… because…")

II. Elephants were not a dumb idea in general
 A. Examples from primary sources
  1. Alexander
  2. Seleucids
  3. Ptolemaic Egyptians
 B. Expert opinion on the effectiveness of elephant warfare
 C. My interpretation of what the evidence means and why it shows that
  elephants were not a dumb idea in general

Sections III (Roman adaptability) and IV (How Roman adaptability trumped the effectiveness of elephants) will follow the same structure as section II.

Finding Evidence

Finding evidence for any given historical problem is easy. Finding the right evidence that will help you make a convincing argument is hard. Therefore, my rule of thumb is, start with the evidence that's easy to find, and let it point you toward the evidence that it relies on.

For example, it's often easier to find the secondary sources than the primary. But remember the definition of a secondary source: it's the work of a scholar using primary sources to provide his or her own interpretation of events. So a scholarly secondary source is going to be based on primary sources—and the secondary source's text, footnotes, and bibliography will tell you which ones and where to look in them.

Finding books. So, start by looking for books. Tertiary sources like textbooks and encyclopedias can help you here: just as secondary sources are based on primary sources and can point you toward them, tertiary sources are based on secondary sources and can point you toward them. A textbook on ancient history or ancient Rome will usually have a "Suggested readings" section for each chapter and/or a Bibliography; these will give you the names of books that you might want to try to find. History-related articles in online encyclopedias, while notoriously unreliable, normally have a sources section that lists relevant books on the subject. (Remember: tertiary sources cannot be used as sources of evidence in your paper. This includes textbooks, encyclopedias, and almost everything on the web.)

If there's a book that's obviously useful—say you've come across references to the book War Elephants by John Kistler—the next step is to try to get that book through the library system by looking up the book title in the online catalog. In this case, it's not at the Lehman College library; but it is at John Jay, which is within the CUNY system. So all you have to do is click on the "Request" button, and John Jay will send it to Lehman for you in a few days.

If the book weren't in the CUNY system at all, you'd still have the option to have it sent to you through an online Interlibrary Loan request: if it's at another regional library you'll get it delivered via ILL in a week or two. Another option would be to check the book's availability at the NYPL, using the online catalog at If it's at the main library on Fifth Avenue (and many, many books that aren't available elsewhere are available there), and it's essential to your paper, it might sense to plan an afternoon in midtown to make use of what you can find there. (You can't borrow books out from the reading room there, but you can photocopy important pages and take notes.)

Another tactic is browsing the topic. Start by searching the online catalog for relevant keywords: ancient war, Roman wars, elephants, Hannibal, Zama, etc. As you do these searches take note of the call numbers for books that seem like they might be useful. The call numbers will start to cluster in two or three different areas. For example, Roman military history is around DG89 (history–ancient Italy–armies), but also U35 (military science–Rome). Books on Hannibal will be in DG249 (history–ancient Italy–Second Punic War). War Elephants, the book I noted above, is at UH87 (military science–other). And so on.

So here's the big trick: Once you find the call number clusters, go and look at the shelf for each of them and see what's next to the books that came up in your search. Because every time I do research, the book that's most useful to me is on the shelf next to the books that came up in the catalog search. Take down books with likely titles—and, before you even carry them to your table, check two things: the Table of Contents and the Index. They'll tell you if that book covers subjects that will be useful to you and your thesis. If you've got a book on Hannibal in your hand, but the index doesn't list elephants, you can confidently put it back—it won't help you with this paper.

Once you have a book in hand, you can harvest its sources by checking the footnotes and bibliography for (a) mentions of other secondary sources that seem to be the seminal books in the field and (b) important primary sources and the relevant passages in them. So a book on the Second Punic War will often mention both the most important scholarly books on that war, some of which you'll want to try to find. It will also refer not only to the primary source authors who wrote about that war, but it will specify the crucial passages in those works.

In this way, using what you have, you can assemble what you need.

Finding journal articles. In addition to scholarly books, you'll want to look for another kind of secondary source: journal articles. Books are generally comprehensive approaches to a general subject, with titles like Hannibal or The Second Punic War or War Elephants. Journal articles are much more narrow and circumscribed. Like a position paper, they're usually written to answer a very specific question.

Most of the classics and history journals are archived in JSTOR, an online database, available through the CUNY library websites, where you can (a) search by keywords and authors, and (b) retrieve full-text PDFs of the articles. xFor example, a JSTOR search reveals that there is a journal article called "Magister Elephantorvm: A Reappraisal of Hannibal's Use of Elephants" by Michael B. Charles and Peter Rhodan that argues that Hannibal's use of elephants at Zama illustrates his tendency to take risks in battle; and another by Charles, "African Forest Elephants and Turrets in the Ancient World," that takes on the very particular and contentious question of whether ancient warfare with the small African forest elephants involved the use of turrets, or howdahs.

From searches like these you can find a wealth of information. You may find articles that are spot on for your subject, and will be directly useful both (a) as expert secondary evidence you can quote or summarize in your paper, and (b) as directories of the most important classical and secondary sources on the subject. (Charles and Rhodan's copious footnotes cite every important book, article, and classical source on Hannibal and elephants.) Even without articles that perfectly intersect with your thesis, just the search and a glimpse at the resulting articles, even the ones that aren't exactly what you need, give you useful information—like who's writing about these subjects (apparently Prof. Charles is one of the experts on ancient war elephants) and what the burning issues are in this field.

You can also use JSTOR to find a particular article referenced elsewhere. For example, you might have come across a footnote citing the Charles and Rhodan article in a book you've found; you could then look for the article in JSTOR.

Finally, a JSTOR search may return book reviews of books that might be helpful; you can then go and find that book. For example, my JSTOR search on the keywords "war elephants hannibal" turned up a review of a book called Hannibal's Elephants by Alfred Powers; that book might have been worth investigating. (Do not use just the review as a source. The reviewer will have picked only the elements of the book that stood out to him to write about, making the review both a subjective and an incomplete treatment of the material covered in the book.)


The final section of your paper summarizes the arguments made in the paper and connects them, showing how they support the thesis you made at the beginning.

Counterarguments. To make your position as convincing as possible, one thing you'll want to consider is: What would someone say if they wanted to disagree with you? The reason this is important is that your reader may remain unconvinced because you haven't dealt with an objection he or she already knows about and is mentally setting against your arguments. Your paper is not effective because you haven't countered the opposing argument.

Suppose you were writing a paper that said that Louis XIV was a great king who made France stronger. Anyone familiar with French history, reading your paper, might be thinking, "Yeah, well, what about revoking the Edict of Nantes? Exiling the artisan and middle-class Protestants was a huge and long-lasting blow to the French economy, wasn't it?" Your argument and your evidence might be well structured and impressively interpreted, but your reader may still set down your paper unsatisfied, still thinking to herself, "But what about the Edict of Nantes?"

So before you begin your conclusion paragraph, consider a paragraph where you address what an opponent in a debate, for example, might say to rebut you after you've had your say. You should be able to phrase this paragraph using a formula like "Some might say… . In fact, however, …". In this example, you want to show why revoking the Edict doesn't tarnish Louis XIV, either because the impact wasn't that major or because the other things Louis did outweighed it in benefiting France in the ways you've previously described.


Citations are absolutely essential in any academic paper, but particularly and especially in history. All information that is not from your own head must be cited, whether it's a direct quote, a paraphrase, or even just an idea.

Citations are how we can tell the difference between what you're claiming is your research and analysis, and the work of others. If you don't cite others' work, you're claiming it for your own, and that's plagiarism. Plagiarism is not tolerated at any academic institution; the lightest you'll get off is a zero for the paper, but in many cases harsher penalties are invoked, including an F for the course and academic disciplinary proceedings that may result in a range of transcript-damaging punishments.

It is therefore crucial that you distinguish evidence you've gathered from primary and secondary sources from your own discussion, interpretation, and analysis. You do that with citations.

Consider the article by Charles and Rhodan I alluded to above. There are a number of ways that that article might crop up in your paper. You might quote it directly:

It's clear that Roman adaptability rendered the power of elephants moot. "Scipio had the answer to the elephant question, and the Punic elephants, when they were not doing damage to Hannibal's own troops, were unable to inflict any real damage on the enemy infantry against which they had been arrayed."

Or you could paraphrase it:

It's clear that Roman adaptability rendered the power of elephants moot. Scipio was ready for them, and Hannibal's elephants, even setting aside the injury they did to the Carthaginians, ended up not causing any real damage to the Romans.

Or you might just use the idea:

It's clear that Roman adaptability rendered the power of elephants moot. When Hannibal's elephants attacked at Zama, the Romans were ready for them.

All three of these assertions require a citation, because all of them derive not from your own head, but from Charles and Rhodan. Making these assertions in any form without acknowledging that you got them from Charles and Rhodan is plagiarism and deserves a failing grade.

The citation system in your paper has two components: the bibliography and the footnotes.

The Bibliography

The Bibliography goes at the very end of your paper. It is a list of all of the books and articles you used for the paper. Every book and article you used as source material must appear in the bibliography, once.

Each entry in the bibliography gives the reader all the information they need to find that book or article if they need to. For a book, you have to give (a) the author, (b) the year, (c) the title of the book, and (d) the city and name of the publisher. For an article, you give (a) the author, (b) the year, (c) the title of the article, (d) the journal name, (e) the volume number, and (f) the pages within that volume that the article covers.

A bibliography listing all the books and articles referred to in this guidebook so far would look like this:

Charles, Michael B. 2008. "African Forest Elephants and Turrets in the Ancient World." Phoenix 62: 338–362.

Charles, Michael B. and Peter Rhodan. 2007. "Magister Elephantorvm: A Reappraisal of Hannibal's Use of Elephants." The Classical World 100: 363–389.

Kistler, John M. 2006. War Elephants. Westport, Conn: Praeger.

Powers, Alfred. 1944. Hannibal's Elephants. New York: Longmans & Co.

The bibliography is alphabetized by the authors' last names, and is not numbered.


I described the bibliography first because what footnotes do is point to an entry in the bibliography. For example, in the sample uses of Charles and Rhodan above, each of them needs a footnote after what comes from the article:

It's clear that Roman adaptability rendered the power of elephants moot. "Scipio had the answer to the elephant question, and the Punic elephants, when they were not doing damage to Hannibal's own troops, were unable to inflict any real damage on the enemy infantry against which they had been arrayed."1
1Charles and Rhodan 2007, 388.

It's clear that Roman adaptability rendered the power of elephants moot. Scipio was ready for them, and Hannibal's elephants, even setting aside the injury they did to the Carthaginians, ended up not causing any real damage to the Romans.1
1Charles and Rhodan 2007, 388.

It's clear that Roman adaptability rendered the power of elephants moot. When Hannibal's elephants attacked at Zama, the Romans were ready for them.1
1Charles and Rhodan 2007, 388.

Note that each footnote is actually pointing to an item in your bibliography. In each case, a footnote gives two pieces of information: (a) which book or article and (b) what page in that book or article—that is, which page would a reader go to in order to find the information you've just referred to?

You can think of the relationship between the footnotes and the bibliography like so:


The first footnote in this illustration is shorthand for what you're really telling the reader: "You can find this information on page 34 of the book in my bibliography that's written by Smith and published in 2007."

Usually author plus year is enough to identify a particular work. If an author has written more than one book or article that you're using that was published in the same year, then the years are given in the bibliography as 1999a, 1999b, etc., and the book is referred to in the footnotes by "Jones 1999b."

Citation Formats

In these examples I've used the citation style that I normally use, which is based on author–date Chicago style and is derived from the Chicago Manual of Style. The 16th edition of the CMS is current, and information and samples can be found at

Author–date Chicago style allows for in-text citations instead of footnotes. For example:

It's clear that Roman adaptability rendered the power of elephants moot. Scipio was ready for them, and Hannibal's elephants, even setting aside the injury they did to the Carthaginians, ended up not causing any real damage to the Romans (Charles and Rhodan 2007, 388).

The idea is the same: after material that comes from a source, refer to that bibliography item and give the page.

Other academic documentation systems, such as Modern Language Association or MLA style, also have in-text citations. (For more on MLA cites you can consult, e.g.,

I don't care what citation style you use, or whether you use footnotes or in-text cites. What matters is that the cites are there and that you've properly documented the evidence you've collected from primary and secondary sources.

Direct link to this page


Eras of History

Major eras of human history

Ages of Technology

Major ages of human technology

Iron Age Civilizations

Social development across the iron age in different regions


Egypt Timeline

Periods of Egyptian history

Hebrew Timelines

Concurrent events involving Hebrews and Neo-Assyrians


Periods of
Greek History

Major periods in Greek history

Peloponnesian Wars

Phases in the development of the war between the Greeks

Fourth Century

Wars for hegemony and the rise of Macedon


Periods of
Roman History

Major periods in Roman history

Wars in Italy

Rome's progress in dominating Italy

Mediterranean Wars

Rome's advancing power in the East


Chief events in Augustus's career

Direct link to this page

Getting the Books

All of these books are available via the Lehman College Bookstore or through online retailers. If you get the books online make sure you get the right edition and that you allow enough time for shipping before we start meeting.

The textbook is also available in rental and digital e-book versions (see below).

The Textbook
The Reader

Books-A-Million Logo

Allen M. Ward, Fritz Heichelheim,
  & Cedric Yeo.
A History of the Roman People,
6th edition.
Pearson, 2014.
ISBN: 978-0-205-84679-5.
  De Roma: Excerpts from Ancient
Writers About Rome
2nd edition.
CreateSpace, 2013.
ISBN: 978-1-481-90543-5.

Digital version of the textbook: Save 60% off compared to print; get immediate access; email notes within the CourseSmart reader; study on mobile devices

A History of the Roman People, Sixth Edition
by Allen M. Ward; Fritz M. Heichelheim; Cedric A. Yeo
Price to Student $33.99

Make sure you get the right edition of the textbook, especially if you're buying a used copy. The sixth edition is new and the page numbers may not match up with earlier editions.

If you prefer, an online version of the Reader is available on the course website. Links to individual excerpts can be found on the Schedule page.

Both are available from Lehman College Bookstore, either in person or online. (The website URL for the bookstore is They are also available from Amazon and other online retailers. If you order online, make sure you do so enough in advance that you'll receive the books in time for the assignments.